5 May 2022


Chronic Pain: Treatment Options and Efficacy

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Academic level: College

Paper type: Article critique

Words: 872

Pages: 3

Downloads: 0

Chronic pain is that lasts for more than 3 to 6 months. It's a pain that persists beyond the expected duration of healing. Several treatment methods have been invented to treat chronic pain. The efficiency of these methods vary. This paper is going to compare and contrast three scholarly articles about treatment of chronic pain.

Japan Journal of Nursing Science: Literature review of pain management for people with chronic pain

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In this literature review, a team of medical experts used multimodal approaches. The aim was to relieve pain in patients suffering from chronic pain. It aimed towards boosting self-efficacy which is an essential aspect in the management of chronic pain. The review wanted to identify several viable strategies that are applicable in the administration of chronic pain. It also wanted to prove the efficacy of these strategies when used to control chronic pain. In this study, a systematic and integrated literature review took place. It involved visiting several published works concerning control of chronic pain. The researchers were able to go through several databases involving patients with chronic pain and compare them as asserted by Aegler and Satink (2009). In the studies, the researchers reviewed a total of 35 studies concerning management of chronic pain. Out of these, 10 of the studies showed that strategies such as integrated and multidisciplinary chronic pain management programs took place. The integrated and interdisciplinary approaches showed a significant reduction in pain intensity. However, these strategies were not effective for the long-term administration of the pain. The rest of the patients that were involved in the study reported that strategies such as physical activity, acupuncture, pharmacotherapy, rest, diets, lifestyle change and social support were effective in managing pain in the long term.

School of Therapeutic Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand: A Review of Current Therapeutic Practice for the Management of Chronic Pain.

In this study, the model of chronic pain that was proposed by Siddall and Cousins2 came out. This model is used alongside interdisciplinary approach when treating chronic pain. Specific treatment modalities took place. Three databases were used to make a review of the literature. They included Pedro, PubMed and OT Seeker. The aim was to determine the current pain management practice. The keywords used in the search included ‘chronic pain’, ‘pain management’, ‘rehabilitation’ and ‘occupational therapy’. All the literature published from 2004 to 2013 helped in the study. It covered therapeutic management, modalities used, qualitative research randomised controlled trials and expert opinions. Studies involved children or adolescents with chronic pain and the interventions that applied (Ashworth, Davidson, Espie, 2010).

The first search gave a total of 3221 articles and books. However, it was narrowed down to 229 relevant books and articles. 25 references included books were used to review treatment approaches and modalities used to manage pain by therapists. Siddall and Cousins2 proposed a model. In this example, chronic pain stood out as an illness similar to neurological disorder or arthritis instead of a symptom. Therefore, chronic pain has its signs, symptoms and pathology. The two authors urged that chronic pain is untreatable by methods that target symptoms only. A multidisciplinary approach was recommended to achieve optimal results. It involves a team of health professionals working together to achieve equal outcomes. It included physiotherapy modalities, psychological interventions and occupational therapy. Group therapy, exercises, pacing strategies, relaxation therapy and neurophysiological education, was used. It appeared that chronic pain patients reacted differently to modalities used despite them having similar injuries or underlying diseases. The reviewers used a total of randomised studies. However, studies that involved strategies such as graded motor imagery (GMI) never got used. The conclusion was that a single chronic pain management approach was not efficient. Instead, a team of medical experts are needed to provide a multidisciplinary approach. 

British Journal of Occupational Therapy: A Literature Review on Chronic Pain: The Daily Overcoming of a Complex Problem

This journal tried to study how chronic pain is controllable since it highly impacts on peoples' working life. Patient’s professional life can be terminated by chronic pain. It also impacts on the day to day activities such as family live and sleep. This study involved a thorough search in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) (2004–2010) and Medline (2006–2010) databases. During this quest, the keywords used included ‘occupation’, ‘family’, ‘chronic pain’, and ‘sleep disorders’. Those articles used had to refer to the impact of chronic pain on sleep, IADLs or the family of the patient. In the quest, a general view of the effects of chronic pain, studies with specific diagnosis were analysed. The STROBE statement scale was used to assess the quality when it came to detailed research. The PRISMA statement level got involved in the systematic reviews. The search covered found a total of total of 256 articles about chronic pain and management strategies. On average, the articles confirmed that chronic pain had a significant impact on the life of the patients. The research showed that the victim’s family members and friends played a key role in pain management. Patients that had caring friends and family members were able to manage the pain effectively. This pain management strategy took place in conjunction with other strategies such as lifestyle change, dieting and rests as asserted by Borell et al. (2006). The above study was able to confirm that social support is essential for management of chronic pain. If the patient gets sufficient social support from his/her family and friends, dieting, lifestyle change and resting improve. It is very evident from all the articles that a multifunctional approach is always the best. They all agree that a multifaceted approach is critical to tackling the chronic pain ordeal. The various methods used may be different.


Aegler B, Satink T (2009). Performing occupations under pain: the experience of persons with chronic pain. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy , 16(1), 49–56. Google Scholar

Ashworth PCH, Davidson KM, Espie CA (2010). Cognitive-behavioral factors associated with sleep quality in chronic pain patients . Behavioral Sleep Medecine , 8(1), 28–39. Google Scholar

Borell L, Asaba E, Rosenberg L, Schult M, Townsend E (2006) . Exploring experiences of ‘participation’ among individuals living with chronic pain. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy , 13(2), 76–85. Google Scholar

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 16). Chronic Pain: Treatment Options and Efficacy.


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