11 Jul 2022


Cognitive Development in Human Beings

Format: APA

Academic level: College

Paper type: Research Paper

Words: 316

Pages: 1

Downloads: 0

Question One 

Piaget categorized cognitive development in human beings into four stages based on age. The first stage was sensorimotor, which occurs between 0-2 years ( Barnes-Matthews, 2012 ). Children understanding in this stage is mainly through senses and motor activities. Piaget further divided sensorimotor into six sub-stages. Preoperational is the second stage which occurs between 2-7 years. Children begin to think symbolically and learn images and words. Additionally, they possess an egocentric cognitive ability. The third stage is concrete operation. It constitutes children between seven to eleven years. In this stage, children are less egocentric; however, their thinking is concrete. Additionally, they develop an ability to apply logical reasoning. 

Finally, the formal operation is between the age of eleven years to adulthood. The cognitive ability develops fully so that children in this stage reason logically, can solve difficult and hypothetical issues. Erikson’s psychosocial development theory argues that personality develops in eight stages from childhood to adulthood: infancy, toddlerhood, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood ( Barnes-Matthews, 2012 ). Each stage constitutes psychosocial crises that impact personality growth. 

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Question Two 

Social workers need to understand cognitive and socio-emotional development because most work with family institutions that include children. Therefore, it is essential to provide a basic explanation of a child's cognitive ability based on age. Furthermore, it is essential to explain to caregivers’ ways to promote healthy cognitive and social-emotional development. A child’s brain and socio-emotional development rely on the interaction he/she haves with the people around him/her (Isaacs, 2013); thus, caregivers will learn how to interact with children and impact them with great socioemotional skills. 

Question Three 

As a social worker, it would be necessary to explain the cognitive development stage to caregivers when they are worried about toilet training. Some people may try to train children about using the toilet when they are still very young and may feel disappointed and frustrated when they do not understand. It would be appropriate to explain to a caregiver who is worried about a child’s delay in learning to use the toilet. In such a scenario, the caregiver needs to realize that she should set achievable and appropriate goals for a child based on age. 


Barnes-Matthews, C. (2012). Life as an Infant: Shedding Light on Erikson, Vygotsky, and Piaget.  XULAneXUS 10 (1), 1. 

Isaacs, S. (2013).  Social development in young children  (Vol. 20). Routledge. 

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 17). Cognitive Development in Human Beings.


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