4 Oct 2022


Eight Elements of Thinking and Reasoning

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Academic level: College

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The main elements of thinking and reasoning include; the point of view, purpose, key question, assumptions, information, concepts, interpretations, and conclusions. These elements can be re-categorized into four different categories. According to Paul and Elder (2009), the main goal in the elements of thoughts and reasoning is to be in a position to come up with the best end result and to have the best intellectual standards. Critical thinking is the act of thinking about a subject, content, context or a problem and this allows the thinker to improve their thinking capacity by taking charge of the skills and elements in hand (Baskent, 2016). 

Category 1- Viewfinder 

Point of view: The angle I from where I see things or how I give a personal interpretation of words. It involves how I look at something and the way I perceive it in my mind. While I am reasoning through a problem which individual decisions do I take? How is an individual able to elaborate on their thoughts? 

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Assumption: These are ideas, beliefs or information taken for granted. Assumptions require justification using actual evidence for them to become believable. 

Explanation: I paired point of view and assumption in the same category because if I have a specific concept or theory about something, then I must peace the facts together to prove my concept or theory correct. 

Category 2- Agenda 

Purpose: My purpose is my goal, my primary objective or what I am trying to achieve. 

Key question: Whenever I reason through something, I am trying to answer a question or address a specific area of conflict. Which problem do I have in hand? 

Explanation: The main reason I paired purpose and a fundamental question is that in the process of resolving a specific matter or problem is I have to think about a particular goal or objective I want to achieve. The initial characteristic of purpose has a desire to accomplish something and solving the fundamental question facilitates in attaining the target. 

Category 3- Facts 

Information: This includes data evidence; facts or my experiences which I can use come up with a final decision. What information do I have and what information is needed? 

Concepts: These are theories, ideas, principles or hypothesis that I can use to make total sense of something. 

Explanation: The reason I choose to pair information and concepts together is that if I come up with an idea or theory about a particular subject, then I have to gather all the facts and knowledge needed in that specific field so that I can prove that my opinion is correct. 

Category 4- The cost 

Interpretation and conclusions: The judgments I will use to help me come up with my final answer. What will I use to come up with my end goal when figuring things out? 

Implications and consequences: These are claims or truths that are logical, and they follow other allegations or revelations that are already in existence. 

Explanation: The reason I put these two elements together is that interpretations and conclusions give me a chance to present consistency in my facts and the implications and consequences come immediately after the findings and implications. The results can either be positive or negative depending on the matter in question. 


Başkent, C. (2016).  Perspectives on interrogative models of inquiry: Developments in inquiry and questions

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2009). The miniature guide to critical thinking-concepts and tools (Thinker’s guide ).  Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for critical thinking . 

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