1.1

Since students cannot measure their lecturer numerically and determine exactly the number, therefore this is a categorical variable (ordinal variable) because the students can only classify their lectures based on some characteristics for example good, very good or excellent.

1.17

A. single quantitative variable (Q) since it is easy to find the number of appliances

B. It is quantitative explanatory variable and a quantitative response variable

C. it is single categorical variable.

C. In this situation, the study is to the countries, while the variable of interest is on their disapproval of the Iraq war and the variable is categorical.1.18

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A. The study is on the people living in America and the appliances available in every house such as the microwaves, electric kettles.

B. the study is about determining the number of appliances in every home in America.

C. since an exact number of devices can be determined numerically and obtain the real values, it means that the variable in the study is quantitative.

1.19

A. explanatory variable is variable be said to cause differences in another variable therefore in the study, the change in percentage is the explanatory variable.

B. change in percentage is quantitative because getting the difference between rates is possible.

C. a variable in which the changes are observed is called response variable and in the study, the difference in years show how the used of appliances have increased. Therefore, the variable of reply is the years.

D. change in years is quantitative since the value is obtainable that is 2001-1987= 4years

E. The year 2001 has higher percentages than 1987 in both appliances.

1.2

A. Individual’s weight can quantify numerically in kilograms and likewise to pressure, by measuring in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). An average human has a body pressure of 120mm Hg hence both situations are quantitative variables.

B. individuals can be distinguished categorically as being healthy or overweight, but when determining their body pressure, the variable becomes quantitative.

C. both weight and pressure can be measured numerically and obtain values. In both situations, the variables are quantitative.

D. assessing people as having high or low pressure is a quantitative variable, but it becomes categorical variable when classifying according to overweight or being normal.

1.4

A. the study is to the people around the world, while the war in Iraq is the variable of interest. The variable is categorical since it is opinions that cannot be measured.

B. the study is to people in various countries, and the variable of interest is whether they approve or disapprove the Iraq war. The variable is quantitative since the percentage of people who refused was determined.

2.13

If the respondents selected are representative of a population without bias such as choosing the wealthiest people who can afford to access the internet daily, then their opinions will reflect how frequent all Americans use the Internet to acquire information about Major League Baseball. Randomization and increasing the number of respondents are the best methods to use to obtain an unbiased sample and improve the accuracy.

2.2

A. acquiring of customers opinion on the services is the sampling stage while analyzing the data to give results is the study design

B. using bad, good, very good and excellent are the ways you can treat satisfaction categorical. While rating the services out of a certain number for example 100, to provide percentage is treating satisfaction as quantitative.

2.22

A. it is a convenience sampling since giving AIDs patients who had used marijuana the painkillers is not a random way.

B. the researcher can obtain data regarding his or her study quickly without the complication of using a randomized sample.2.7

It is haphazard sampling.

By either creating an unrepresentative sample, knowingly or unknowingly, it will be hard to get the correct answer because of selection bias.

2.6

A. all the students in that university is representative samples to determine all the left handed since it proves to be unbiased.

B. using all college- aged males is a good sample to determine the earnings of every male for the previous year.

2.28

Random sampling is scientific and cannot be an unscientific way of finding data. The correct word to use is haphazard.