4 Apr 2022


Foundation of the Development and Functions of Police

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Traditionally policing was mainly delivered through the theory of deterrence. This would involve random patrols, response to emergencies, investigation and intensive enforcement. Although these methods are widely practiced by the police in the today society, research has shown that these strategies by the police are ineffective in reducing cases of crime and identifying offenders in the society. The police Foundation was established as an important reform during the 1970’s. As the world was changing the police organization, required a body that would check and analyses the structure and functioning of the police. The police foundation focused on establishing a strategic approach to crime (A. Bottoms 42) . The foundation would integrate the police force into understanding real world crimes and how to prevent them. The foundation was also expected to manage the police organization and its personnel.

The report is focused on exploring the major characteristics of the police reforms that have been put to place in order to improve the organization of the police force. By analyzing both traditional and modern characteristics of the police, the writer is expected to identify the significance of the police, and the strategies that they employ in order to full offer services to the community. The report is expected to show how the police are trained and prepared for working and reducing crime in the community, and explain how the police reduce the rate of crime in the community. Conclusively the writer is expected to evaluate the extent at which the police have reduced crime, and explain other ways that the police can adapt to in order to function effectively.

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The evolution of the reform era of policing mainly took place as a result of influence from the progressive political structure, that so the need for government reforms that would facilitate better living conditions for the whole society. On the other hand, corruption and chaos resulting from the ‘Boss Tweed’ and the Tammany Hall Machinery triggered reforms on the functioning of the police. As a result the police adapted to technological advancement that involved use of cars and radios. It is noted that the adaptation of the police to new technology, did not only boost policing but also improved the relationship between the police and the citizens of the community.

Reforms to policing in the community focused on removing the police organization as a political branch, and establishing it as an independent bureaucratic body. Standards for police qualifications and Education became an important factor to any individual willing to join the police (A. Bottoms 38) . Police reforms lead to the establishment of an independent civil service body that took place in the hiring and firing of police officers. The body adapted to scientific means of analysis, to review any disciplinary cases or measure performance and effectiveness of the police. In the traditional policing, officers walked around the community conducting random patrols. The reform era reflected a change where the police used cars, where unlike in foot patrols the police could be easily supervised by their commanders. 

It is important to acknowledge that the reform era facilitated the change of the police organization, from a politically influenced body to a body that pursues policing as a profession with standards of competence, training and performance. The reforms era of the police attempted to strategize on the ways to reduce the rate of crime in the changing world. Despite the achievement of the reforms to a significant reduction in corruption, the reform era also resulted to negative impacts to the community. One can argue that as the police focused more on implementing law and order within the community, and overlooked the impacts that their mode of policing implementation had on the citizens of the community. 

In the modern day police academies, police trainees are expected to learn more than just Laws and the police structure. Unlike traditional mechanical training strategies, the new methodology of training police officers focuses on mechanical training as one of the programs. The foundation of the police majorly focuses on the trainee’s learning skills and problem solving capacity. Learning and being able to solve problems with adequate reasoning and thinking facilitates the police to perform their work effectively. It is important to note that officer rote training is also an important aspect of training. In traditional policing this was the major mode of training, but in the community policing rote training is adapted as one of the elements of training an officer. 

Problem solving allows the trainees to get experienced to deal with the everyday activity of being a police officer. The process of problem solving demands a creative and flexible way of thinking, this mode of training equips the officer with adequate reasoning skills that allows the officer to able to address different problems that occur in the line of duty. The trainer and trainee are described to answer calls and work together with the community. The Police Training Officer (PTO), states that the trainee tackles Problem-Based Learning Exercises. The Exercises are set to develop skills that the trainee will use to address problems in the community (A. a. Braga 17) . These exercises are also identified to improve the interaction between the trainee and the community; through critical thinking and reasoning the trainee is more than able to solve problems in the society. 

Community policing is the approach to crime control, which is characterized by sharing of information between the public and the police. Despite the concept carrying different meaning to different people, one cannot overlook the idea that community policing involves the active involvement of the public and the police in an attempt to achieve reduced crime and improve civil police services. The traditional approach to policing is described as reactive rather than proactive. Random patrol and response and intensive enforcement are characteristics that describe traditional policing. One the major differences between community policing to traditional policing is that, traditional policing focused on random patrol and response while community policing focuses on establishing strategic means that enable the community to communicate with the police directly. Community policing is based on more thinking before acting, unlike traditional policing where officers will respond to all criteria of crimes with similar law enforcement techniques. One cannot also overlook the aspect of time being a major differentiator of the two, while tradition policing was practiced before the political reform era. Community policing has been adapted as a mode of policing coinciding with the changing world. 

Community policing has gained popularity in different communities. Regardless of the variations of meanings that people have adapted to, the idea of community policing is seen to focus on the engagement of the community in maintain law and order and solving problems that face the community. Community policing focuses on applying proactive problem solving to address the integration of crime and its prevention in the community. This mode of policing involves the involvement of the community in addressing local problems and challenges. Community policing ensures that all the local problems are addressed, by the police working together with the community. It is important to acknowledge that, direct communication and interaction of the community and the police tend to create trust between the two bodies. Thereby it is easier for the community to air concerns to the police, and the police to respond to these concerns effectively. Another important element of the implementation and evaluation of community policing, is the ability of community engagement to foster legitimacy and police effectiveness. Community involvement fosters reduction in crime by implementing compliance by the people, community policing does not only improve legitimacy; the right of the ruled towards the rule. But also develops better police effectiveness, which goes hand by hand.

A good investigator should have good communication and interview skills. In any case that a detective or an undercover officer may engage in, communication to the other people is very important. Investigators rely on interviews in order to extract information from people; thereby a good investigator should have good communication and interview skills in order to blend in the society. Controlling one’s emotions is a vital skill that investigators should have. In more than one instance, it is expected that in his line of work an investigator is likely to experience situations that prompt different emotions. Executing these emotions would lead to distorting the case. Thereby an investigator is expected to fully control their feelings during policing functions. 

Investigators are expected to show responsiveness and honesty in their work. An investigator should be able to address cases swiftly and efficiently. An investigator is also expected to be in genuine with the changing world. An investigator should be ready to adapt to the changing use of technological equipment’s in problem solving situations. Technological tools have made solving cases easier and faster, it is important for an investigator to be conversant with the changing times. Knowledge of the Law is also very important. Acknowledging the law facilitates other qualities such as confidentiality and professionalism in the line of work.

References Cited

Bottoms, A. and Tankebe, J. " Beyond Procedural Justice: A Dialogic Approach to Legitimacy in Criminology." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (2012): 119-170.

Bottoms, A. Developing Socio-Spatial Criminology. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Braga, A, Papachristos, A. and Hureau, D. Hotspots policing effects on crime. Campbell: Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2012.

Braga, A. and Weisburd, D. L. The Effects of ‘Pulling Levers’ Focused Deterrence Strategies on Crime. Campbell: Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2012.

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