19 May 2022


Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

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Academic level: University

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Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels theories have shown that our society is ruled by class structures has shown its effects on most problems in our societies. The main ideas theorized between the two were ideas of class struggles, communism and also, on the value of labor. Due to this Karl Marx theory went on to be named as the theory of materialistic conception. This is in regard to the fact that anyone owning any resource of value would automatically hold a higher authoritative power in relation to user of the resource or anyone with the need for the resource (Roemer, 1998). In this case there is the formation of social classes which differentiate individuals with high class status and low class statuses in the society today. According to Karl max and Friedrich Engels high class individuals take advantage and exploit the lower class with full awareness of the position they hold in society. 

The theory of different classes were what brought up society as it is today, seeing as individuals would face each other for different interests which comes to be mutually beneficial. This would then have a hand in formation of industrial capitalism in the modern society where labor has been viewed as a commodity in the social market, this means that most human relations are based on economic relations in our modern day society. Change in the modern society was brought about by this forms of class struggles and class conflicts between owners of resources and parties seeking this resources. Classes in society is therefore defined as more materialistic in society and is ultimately upheld by property (Balibar, 1995). Power in the modern society is depicted through ownership of a resource which could bring value the degree of power as argued by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels is thus assumed by the same degree of ownership of property owned. The view of this theory is seen as the authority to hold power of distribution and production of this resources with the interest of labor from the opposing party.

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Class itself is a conceptual idea and goes ahead to form the different relationships in the society. People with similar class interests are seen to behave in a similar manner this is due to the possession of a common interest and the formation of interdependence between each other. Class structures as seen to be formed in this way where groups of individuals with similar interests form a community (Balibar, 1995). However most class conflicts occur when individuals from social class develop interest into climbing up the social class and this brings up most issues of class struggles. Social classes can be branded as different groups of individuals in the same life situations sharing common interests with the increased commonality in social interests there is a growth in interest for political power. 

Social classes thus become a governing power in political authority (Roemer, 1998). Social class structures thus affect the social class structure and with the ever widening margin between classes the balance of social fairness will not favor the lesser class in the society today. The modern day workers condition is bound to decrease as the higher classes in society’s interests grow each day as their exploitation will be openly seen. The only solution to this would be a working class worker acquiring the means to own a resource that would breakthrough to give them a higher class in society.

Karl Marx has therefore showed that class conflict is essential for a society to work, moreover Marx and Engels showed that people mostly look for materialistic awareness as a class of its own. This would go on to the alienation of people into different sociological groups. However Marx has encourage individuals to accept their different classes and furthermore relate to the class conflicts they face. This awareness is explained to cause the division of the modern day social classes. The existent framework of the different classes in society due to materialistic value has seen owners of this properties control the labor force of the lesser class (Calhoun, 2012). Social problems come up as a result of lack of equality between various genders in society. Different classes of people face different degrees of social alienation social problems arising from this may include discrimination against race, ethnicity and sex. Class conflicts has led to tipping of balances and co-existence between different individuals. Karl Marx argued that people applying labor to gain a resource or in other words most employees rightfully deserved to be at an equal economic status to that of rich people. This notion was however hindered by the fact there’s a rapid growth of industrial capitalization which has furthermore oppressed the low class people in the class structure.

Karl Marx portrayed his theory through social classes of people identifying individuals owning much in society as bourgeoisie which was more over a class of individuals that exploited its workers. The bourgeoisie communities furthermore have industrial capitalist leanings. The providers of labor to this social class are portrayed as proletariat and this workers have been misled furthermore into small wages owning up to their inferior lifestyles. Society in modern day America has an operational class structure that does really support industrial capitalism workers are paid less or just enough for their modern day bills (Roemer, 1998). This form of exploitation has seen bourgeoisie community in America become wealthier and wealthier.

Due to the creation of social classes in modern day America, there has been an alienation of the different communities, such that the rich prefer to live in their own gated communities, while those working class societies are situated in secluded rental properties, fully owned and controlled either by the government or by the richer classes. The separation of these communities depicts how social classes are based on materialistic forms (Calhoun, 2012). Industrial sociology in modern day America can be simply broken down into the one selling his or her labor and the managing industrial body. The management would seek to use the maximum labor force from its employees while handing them fixed salaries. In the American industry workers and employers social relationships are seen to be randomly changing as individuals seek to take up each other’s superior bracket in society.

Marx and Engels encouraged people to rise up and revolutionize the industrial sector in order to get a communist society where fairness is supreme and property Is equally owned this will go ahead to lower the margins of this classes. To achieve communism in the setting of modern society, the authoritative powers in our society must be ready to give up all of the properties that put them in positions of power (Calhoun, 2012). Furthermore a complete fair division of this resources must thus be seen to everyone in this way we can see that communism helps fight poverty. Class structures would be eradicated in societies and social ladders would be significantly less inclined. Communism on the other hand, also has its down falls, seeing as, with communism, most individuals would seek to turn the tables of communism in their favor.


Balibar, E. (1995). The philosophy of Marx . London New York: Verso.

Calhoun, C. (2012). Classical sociological theory . Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Roemer, J. (1998). Equality of opportunity . Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

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