12 Jul 2022


Political Changes in Race Relations

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1. Ten concepts/detailed facts/historical evidence about race relations from the 1860s to the 1960s 

1. 1860: there are 436,000 slaves in Mississippi. Negroes represent more than 55% of Mississippi's population. 

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2. American Civil War: Abraham Lincoln announces the Civil War a "white man's battle" and says that no Negroes, free or slaves, would be accepted into the Union strengths, however, reneges on his policy in 1862 because of mounting losses. Negroes battle in segregated units under white commanders. 

3. In 1864 the term “miscegenation” appears. Miscegenation is the Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro. 

4. During Andrew Johnson Administration states of the former Confederacy adopt laws that spot free Negroes in a condition like slavery (loc)

5. 2,232 Negroes emigrate from the United States to Liberia somewhere around 1865 and 1868. 

6. During 1910-1930 “Great Migration” takes place. 500,000 Negroes migrated to the North. 

7. "Marriage between a white person and an Indian, Negro, mulatto, mestizo, or mutt should be invalid and void." Penalty: Misdemeanor, fined at least $500, or detained for at the very least twelve months, or both. Who performed such relational unions confronted charges, subject to the same punishment (Gullickson)

8. In 1920 persons or organizations who printed, distributed or circulated written material promoting the acceptance of intermarriage amongst whites and Negroes would be guilty of a crime. Punishment: Fine up to $500 or detainment up to six months, or both. 

9. Business Licenses: No license would issue to any individual of "the white or Caucasian race to work a billiard room to be used, frequented, or belittled by persons of the Negro race" and vice versa. 

10. During 1935-1950 a domestic ideal of genetic resistance, required by the demands of battling fascism, becomes the "American way." 

2. Ten concepts/detailed facts/historical evidence about civil rights advances from the 1860s to the 1960s 

1. When Abraham Lincoln became president in 1860, Southern states dreaded the criminalization of slaver. Hence, they withdrew from the Union to create the Confederacy. 

2. The Civil War reestablished national unity and ended slavery. The Civil War amendments guaranteed progress for African Americans: the thirteenth banned slavery, the Fourteenth ensured that states couldn't deny the recently liberated slaves level with protection under the law, and the fifteenth gave African-Americans the right to vote (Wright, 2006)

3. The Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 made provisions that should prohibit segregation and provide equal opportunity to African Americans, yet the laws incorporated no enforcement provisions, and they summarily overlooked. 

4. The Reconstruction finished in 1877. Southern states enacted "dark codes" or Jim Crow laws, national and local legislation that commanded racial segregation in all open facilities in the South, numerous fringe states, and some northern groups somewhere around 1876 and 1964 (Patterson)

5. Long after Reconstruction, the living standard for African Americans did not enhance, and whatever remains of the country ignored the issue, to a great extent since 90 percent of all African American kept on living in the South. 

6. In 1948 President Truman signed Executive Order 9981, which states, "It is thus proclaimed to be the policy of the President that there might be equality of treatment and an open door for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, shading, religion, or national origin." 

7. Progress toward racial equality was moderate; however it started in the 1940s and proceeded in the 1950s with Brown v. leading group of Education (1954) which dismisses the "separate but equal" provision in Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown II (1955), which ordered that state funded schools desegregated. 

8. 1954: The Supreme Court rules on the historical point case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans. This ruling collectively concurring that segregation in state-funded schools is unconstitutional. The decision makes ready for large-scale integration (history)

9. 1955: Fourteen-year-old Chicagoan Emmett Till is visiting family in Mississippi when he captured, mercilessly beaten, shot, and dumped in the Tallahatchie River for supposedly whistling at a white lady. Two white men, Roy Bryant, and J.W. Milam are detained for the murder and cleared by an all-white jury. They later boast about committing the crime in a Look periodical interview. The case becomes a cause célèbre of the civil rights movement. 

10. 1957: Martin Luther King, Fred L. and Charles K. Shuttles worth set up the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, of which King made the first president. The SCLC turns into a unique power in sorting out the civil rights movement and bases its standards on peacefulness and civil disobedience. 

3. The three broad categories that I could develop in writing an essay over the prompt is: 


Great Migration 


4. Thesis statements 

“ Categorizations of fantasy have had a tendency to keep away from discussions of race, in part since it is an uncomfortable gray area since fantasy literature does not yet have a precise scientific categorization. In any case, race is frequently an unavoidable part of fantasy literature.” 

“ The Great Migration was a massive development of African Americans from the South toward the North from 1863 to 1960. The biggest spike in this movement happened from around 1910 to 1920. The Great Migration created by different variables pushing African-Americans out of the South, and various components pulling them toward the North. A few case of these "push factors" incorporate general disappointment with the conditions in the South, effect of the Boll-weevil on Southern products, low wages, prejudice, the Black Press, and lynching. The case of some "pull factors" incorporate a work deficiency in the North, higher wages in the North, higher wages in the North, a superior instruction framework, and less political and social discrimination. The Great Migration prompted numerous other essential occasions, including different race riots, white flight, and the Harlem Renaissance.” 

"Reconstruction failed in the face of the White South's acceptance of the end of slavery but an unyielding commitment to White supremacy in another form." 

5. Migration 

“ People care very much about their comparative earnings, and they would be willing to accept a significant fall in living standards if they could move up compared with other people.” 


In the spring of 1916, the consideration of the American press and open was centered on the Great War in Europe. Only a few noticed this entry of dark Southern men brought north by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company to chip away at the rail lines. 

Leaving the South : A few variables encouraged one of the biggest population shifts in the nation's history. In 1898 the little boll weevil attacked Texas and continued to eat its route east over the South. Crops crushed, a huge number of farming laborers diverted from the area, and the long rule of King Cotton as the district's financial backbone at last conveyed to an end (Christensen)

Migration Fever : As reports swell of an abundant job for work that existed over the Mason-Dixon Line, the laborers' circumstance started to change. They heard phenomenal guarantees yet were accurate and anticipated reports from pioneers who went north to try things out. One worker said, "Obviously all that they say in regards to the North isn’t genuine. However there's such a significant amount of it real, wouldn't fret the other." 

The Journey North : The adventure north was made via train, watercraft, transport, once in a while auto, and even speed drew a truck. It was frequently a long, exhausting knowledge; the explorers defined isolated holding up rooms, transports, and prepare mentors, and new methodology and disagreeable conductors. Next to no nourishment or beverage was accessible. Tolls were costly, stopping numerous eventual transients from making the trek. Regular traveler passages - 2¢ for every mile in 1915 - star inside three years to 24¢ a mile (history)

Networks and Media : More persuasive than the operators over the long haul were family and companions. Planned vagrants financed their tickets by offering every one of their belonging. At the point when that was insufficient, families pooled their assets to send one part. With the provider gone north, other relatives needed to bolster themselves until the vagrant made great. Numerous ladies gave family bolster by taking employments as domestics. They additionally spared cash to purchase their tickets. One composed, "such a large number of women need to go . . . We can't get work here so much now; the white women let us know we simply need to profit to go north, and we do." Both guardians once in a while went north while grandparents or other relatives tended to their children. 

A New Industrial Landscape : The Great Migration prodded an enormous increment in the African-American people group in northern urban areas. In the decade somewhere around 1910 and 1920, New York's dark populace ascended by 66 percent, Chicago's by 148 percent, Philadelphia's by 500 percent. Detroit encountered an astonishing development rate of 611 percent. 

Hard Life in North : Migration years see the development of service organizations give help and backing to the newcomers, for example, the National Urban League, established in 1911 in New York. The Chicago Urban League opened its entryways in 1917. In its initial two years some fifty-five thousand transients looked for help with discovering occupations and lodging. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and similar associations gave a required life saver to approaching vagrants. 

The Red Summer : During the first years of the Great Migration would see an extraordinary rush of warm brutality explain the country. Twenty-six race riots - in urban areas extensive and little, North and South - would kill scores of African Americans. Be that as it may, the vagrants did not induce this wicked flood of disorder; it was, as a rule, coordinated at them (digitalhistory)

The Quest for Political Power : Their painful experience of disappointment in the South, combined with their confidence in the force of the poll, drove numerous transients to enlist to vote very quickly after touching base in the North. Having gotten so little profit by their assessment dollars for so long, African Americans now looked for political representation. This new electorate carried with them astringent recollections of political avoidance. Some had seen firsthand the brutality and terrorizing utilized against would-be dark voters; numerous others had recounted them. Most, if not all, of these negative occasions, were executed under the protection of the Democratic Party. A worker initially from Alabama told a specialist that he would never vote for a Democrat the length of he kept his memory (uchicago)

Legacies : In spite of the fact that they confronted separation, rejection, and savagery, African-American transients never quit moving ahead. In 1890, 63 percent of all dark male workers worked in farming. By 1930, just 42 percent did as such. During that period, the quantity of African-American schoolteachers dramatically increased, the amount of dark possessed organizations tripled, and the proficiency rate took off from 39 to 85 percent. 


However, at last, leaving the South was not about financial opportunity or living on with a "higher good life." Most migrants paid the consequences, in some coin or other, for their departure. The Great Migration was about African Americans beginning once again and doing penances for future generations. As concluded, the journey north represented to not the end of a struggle but rather just it’s starting. 

Thesis Statement of Paragraph 

Evidence 1:   Economic, Social, Environmental, and Political Forces Were Crucial To the Migration 

Explanation: The choice to pull up one's long plant roots and journey into the unidentified not easily made. For southern migrants, it was a balancing act. 

Evidence 2: Migrants Made Their Decisions about When and Where to Go 

Explanation: Migrants consistently attempted to control the world around them by negotiation, bargaining, and compromise. 

Evidence 3: Many Southerners Made Their Way North 

Explanation: During the early period, northern employers assist the migrants with transportation. Their agents gave out travel passes whose cost often deducted from future wages. 


Christensen, S. (n.d.). The Great Migration (1915-1960) . Retrieved from blackpast: http://www.blackpast.org/aah/great-migration-1915-1960 

digitalhistory. (n.d.). The Great Migration . Retrieved from digitalhistory: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3385 

Gullickson, A. (n.d.). BLACK/WHITE INTERRACIAL MARRIAGE TRENDS, 1850–-2000. Journal of Family History , 289-312. 

history. (n.d.). The Civil Rights Movement And The Second Reconstruction, 1945—1968 . Retrieved from history: http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Essays/Keeping-the-Faith/Civil-Rights-Movement/ 

history. (n.d.). World War I And The Great Migration . Retrieved from history: http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Essays/Temporary-Farewell/World-War-I-And-Great-Migration/ 

loc. (n.d.). Great Deprssion And World War II, 1929-1945 . Retrieved from loc: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/depwwii/race/ 

Patterson, J. T. (n.d.). THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT . Retrieved from gilderlehrman: http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/civil-rights-movement/essays/civil-rights-movement-major-events-and-legacies 

uchicago. (n.d.). Research Resources on Chicago, Jazz, and the Great Migration . Retrieved from uchicago: http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/e/su/cja/greatmigration.html 

Wright, G. (2006). THE ECONOMICS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS REVOLUTION . Retrieved from stanford: http://web.stanford.edu/~write/papers/THE%20ECONOMICS%20OF%20CIVIL%20RIGHTS%20REVOLUTION.pdf 

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