The experimenter effect is s type of bias that occurs dues to the expectations of the experimenter. This mostly happens when a researcher influences the outcome, and this can either be intentionally or unintentionally. In most instances, it is experienced during the administration of the independent variable or even during measurement of the dependent variable (Kennedy, & Taddonio, 1976). For instance, the experimenter is tempted to project specific cues to the participants and this influence or enhances their performance. Experiment effect refers to experimenter’s actions rather than independent variables affecting the dependent variable which affects the outcome of the experiment. To minimize experimenter effect, the researcher can use double-blind procedure when it comes to the allocation of participants to the groups.
According to Kennedy, & Taddonio, (1976), a participant effect, on the other hand, is solely related to the behavioral response of the participants as they are influenced by their expectations of how they should behave. In this case, the participant’s expectations rather than the independent variable affect the dependent variable which affects the final result of the experiment. The participant effect can be minimized through the use of single-blind procedure when it comes to the allocation of participants to groups.
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A blinded experiment implies that the information concerning the test is masked from the participants with the aim of reducing or even eliminating potential bias until the experiment has been finalized (Bock et al., 1988). In a single-blind experiment is a situation where only the participant in an experiment does not have the clue if he or she is included within the control group. On the other hand, in a double-blind experiment the researcher and participants are significantly kept in darkness regarding individuals included in the treatment and in a control group. All these effects influence the outcome of the experiment, and this might not represent the actual situation analyzed.
Bock, S. A., Sampson, H. A., Atkins, F. M., Zeiger, R. S., Lehrer, S., Sachs, M., ... & Metcafe, D. D. (1988). Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) as an office procedure: a manual. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology , 82 (6), 986-997.
Kennedy, J. E., & Taddonio, J. L. (1976). Experimenter effects in parapsychological research. The Journal of Parapsychology , 40 (1), 1.