1 Jun 2022


Business with Cameroon

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Academic level: College

Paper type: Research Paper

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Many countries in the world have their uniqueness that makes them special in their capacity. The uniqueness may range from a varied culture, political setting, economic diversity, and the geographical position. Cameroon is an example of such a country with uniqueness in each respective right. The paper will focus on Cameroon as the case study, discussing geographical, social-political and economic issues in the country. 

Geography and climate 

Cameroon is located near the Gulf of Guinea on the western African coast. Its coastline is approximately 590km along the Atlantic Ocean. The geographical coordinates for Cameroon are 6.00 N, and 12.00 E. Cameroon shares its borders with the Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Nigeria. The country experiences a varied climate with the Equatorial area being characterized by high rainfall, high temperatures and degrading vegetation as from the Equator. The central highlands have four seasons comprising of the Rainy season, short dry season, another rainy reason and finally a large dry season. Secondly, the Occidental area experiences excessive rainfall that occurs from March to November. The Tropical area experiences high temperatures and low rainfall. The rainfall is irregular and absent from December to March. The climate of Cameroon largely depends on the geography of the country. The climate in the coastal regions is different from that in the mountain regions. 

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System of Government 

The Cameroonian government is a democratic regime and can be described as a decentralized unitary state. The state power is vested in the Presidency and the Parliament (Baylis, 2017). On the other hand, the executive power is vested in the President and the government. The president is elected through a secret voting, and it is carried out after every seven years. The term is renewable once. The president has a responsible of appointing government officials and formulates the policies of the country. The government comprises of the Prime Minister and the council of ministers. The President appoints both the PM and the council of ministers. 

The legislative authorities are vested in the parliament which is bicameral. It consists of the National Assembly which is the lower house and the Senate which is the upper house. The Parliament legislates on a myriad of issues including fundamental rights, property ownership, political, judiciary and administrative formations, etc. 

Population and demography 

Cameroon has over 250 ethnic groups which can be folded to form five large regional divisions’ i.e. western highlanders, coastal tropical forests people, southern tropical forests people, Islamic people and the non-Islamic people. The first two national censuses were held in 1976 and 1987 respectively. The most recent census was carried out in the year 2017. According to the 2010 data, the total population of Cameroon was 19,599,000. In the 2017 census, the total population was estimated to be in the region of 24,229,247 people. The number of live births was estimated to be 885,903 with deaths being at 280,331. The natural increase rate was pegged at 605,572 people. The number of males versus that of females is almost the same with the males having a population of 12,096,181 and the females 12,133,066. There exist about 24 African language groups in Cameroon. The official languages are English and French. Several indigenous languages also exist. 

Gross Domestic Product 

The gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of national income and output of a country's economy over a period. In the year 2015, the GDP of Cameroon was worth 29.20 billion US dollars. This value is estimated to be 0.05% of the world’s entire economy. 

Primary Industries 

The main economic activity in Cameroon is agriculture. Therefore many industries in this country are agro-based. Mining is another sector that does well and has highly contributed to the GDP. Manufacturing industries have also played a critical role in the economy of Cameroon. The main manufacturing activities are in aluminum production, oil production, and refining industries, textile industries, etc. Electricity production industries are also there. 

Primary International Trading Partners 

The European Union forms the biggest trading partner of Cameroon. Most imports from Cameroon are received from the countries in the EU and at the same time, most exports including oil, cocoa, bananas, cotton, and lumber are taken to the ports of Europe. Over the past decade, most of the Cameroon exports have been directed to Italy and France. However, Cameroon also trades with her neighbors by exporting a variety of fruits and vegetables and some manufactured commodities as stated by Wirba (2015). The biggest importer of goods to Cameroon is France, including machinery and processed food commodities. Most of the fuel produced by Cameroon is exported to the international firms. 

News and Trends in Cameroon's Economy 

In January 2014, it was reported that oil remains Cameroon’s chief export commodity. It accounts for over 40% of the country’s earnings (Blommaert , 2016). In June 2017, the country was encouraged to invest more on cocoa due to high demands of cocoa globally. In March 2017, the International Monetary Fund initiated talks with Cameroon on the economic program supported by the Fund. They also discussed on measures to enhance the business environment that will boost private sectors' investment and economic diversification. 

Comparison with the US 

The government structure of the United States differs with that of the US. The President in the Cameroon government can appoint an executive Prime Minister while in the US there is no provision for the PM. The President serves for a one term seven-year period in Cameroon, but in the US, the President can serve for a maximum of two four-year terms ( Ndedi & Mua, 2015). The government of the US is divided in the federal and the state governments. The federal government is headed by the government while governors head the state governments. The Cameroon system comprises of one central government headed by the President with smaller local governments that headed by employees of the central government. The legal system in Cameroon is bijural applying the English Common Law and the French Civil Law. In addition to these, they also have the customary laws that can also be applied in their judicial system. The US has a complex set of federal and state laws. Federal laws are the supreme laws but do not necessarily control the states at all time. 


The religion of Cameroon is made up of indigenous beliefs, Christians, and the Muslims. The languages spoken are mainly French, English and the local languages ( Bilangna & Djeuwo, 2013). Any visitor in the country should be aware of their deep love for football, and to get along with a stranger, one should speak about local football, especially about the Invincible Lions, the national team. Questions about religion could easily cause problems among many people. 

Cooperate Social Responsibility and Sustainability 

Cooperate social responsibility and sustainability is the interaction with stakeholders in the society to address issues related to labor rights, environmental concerns, corruption and human rights. The industries in Cameroon appreciate policies that are meant to curb environmental degradation. According to Carodenuto and Cerutti (2014), Laws to govern labor rights are also strictly adhered to promote humane working conditions. 


After their independence, Cameroon was among the most successful countries in Africa. In the mid-1980s, its economy fell due to some reasons such as mismanagement, fall in oil prices, and drop in commodities such as coffee and cocoa. The GDP fell by almost 60%. Due to the good agricultural conditions and the oil reserves, the economy rose again, and they are still doing well in the global market. The Cameroon people use the Central African franc which is equal to 0.001707 US dollars. 


In conclusion, Cameroon is an interesting country with great business opportunities. Their culture is fascinating, and their government structure seems to be functionally stable. The country has enormous opportunities for development due to the major industries they have ranging from petroleum to agricultural industries. Cameroon has also stamped its authority in the global market as it has reliable allies in the European Union. The future is bright for Cameroon and in the next couple of years; they will be a force to reckon with. 


Baylis, J., Owens, P., & Smith, S. (Eds.). (2017).    The globalization of world politics: An introduction to international relations . Oxford University Press. 

Bilangna, S., & Djeuwo, M. (2013). The Figures Culture in Cameroon Customs'.    Reform by Numbers. Measurement Applied to Customs and Tax Administrations in Developing Countries, Washington DC: World Bank

Blommaert, J. (2016). New forms of diaspora, new forms of integration.    Alternative Democracy Research

Carodenuto, S., & Cerutti, P. O. (2014). Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) in Cameroon: Perceived private sector benefits from VPA implementation.    Forest Policy and Economics ,    48 , 55-62. 

Ndedi, A., & Mua, K. K. (2015). Challenges Facing the Fight against Fraud and Corruption Practices in the Cameroonian Public Sector. 

Wirba, A. V., Mas' ud, A. A., Muhammad-Sukki, F., Ahmad, S., Tahar, R. M., Rahim, R. A., ... & Karim, M. E. (2015). Renewable energy potentials in Cameroon: Prospects and challenges.    Renewable energy ,    76 , 560-565. 

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