8 Dec 2022


Community Health and Population-Focused Nursing

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Community Assessment 

Community assessment refers to the systematic process of becoming familiar with a population by investigating the different factors affecting its health. Community nurses have a role in developing health awareness and lifestyles among individuals and reduce the cost of treatment ( Eileen, 2017) . They also play a role in conducting a community assessment that identifies strengths and risks or gaps in a population. The information from this community assessment can be used in guiding work and establish professional intervention with the people, leading to community empowerment. This is a community assessment of Sentinel city that looks to identify the problems in the town and how to address them.

Demographic Assessment 

The city consists of four neighborhoods with a total population of 663, 862, and a median household income of 135, 100 dollars. The four regions differ in terms of the population and ethnicity of people, though the largest ethnicity are whites followed by Latinos. The first neighborhood is Industrial heights with the least population in the city. A majority of ethnicities in this area are Hispanics and African Americans, with 20 percent of the population being below 18 years. On the other hand, Nightingale Square has the second-lowest population of about 103, 900 people largely dominated by whites at 81 percent. Hispanics are second with 3.7 percent of the total population, while a majority of the people is above 65 years.

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The third largest neighborhood is Acer Tech Square with 168, 390 people primarily dominated by whites at 70 percent and Hispanic at 13.7 percent. Those above 65 years in Acer Tech Square are about 20 percent of the total population. Lastly, the largest neighborhood in Sentinel is Casper Park district with a population of 352 643. This area is dominated by whites at 63 percent followed by Hispanics at 24 percent

Community Safety Inventory 

The safety inventory tool helps in analyzing the risks and hazards present in the area that can threaten their health and safety ( Eileen, 2017) . Sentinel city has a quality of air that is considered clean because the town had few industries present, which is located at Industrial heights. However, there is some form of pollution due to emissions from these industries that lead to both air and water pollution. For example, the industries release untreated sewage and other wastes into the water bodies. At the same time, water pollution in Sentinel can be caused by run-off water from heavy rains or overflow from old septic tanks

There is a risk of diseases in this neighborhood with some parks containing stagnant water pools that can cause risk of malaria infection. Mosquitoes can breed in such water pools, in the process risking the health of people in Sentinel city because of the availability of pathogens (Leads, 2014). At the same time, some of the buildings and architecture in the area were old and a health risk to the people. People may be injured from the sad despair of these buildings, including the risk of accidents.

High crime rates in a neighborhood can affect the social, emotional, and physical wellbeing of its people. The Sentinel city has a considerable number of violent and gang-related crime incidents as well as frequent arrests, as shown from the data. The most common crimes were battery, reckless conduct, drug abuse, and criminal trespassing. The violent crime rates are mostly committed by men, with women being the most victims of crime. According to statistics from the police department, there is a significant percentage of violent crimes reported in the area. However, the emergency medical services response is not at a better standard compared to most cities in the United States. There is a need for improvements in providing better services to the people of this city.

Population Health Scavenger Hunt 

Majority of the residents in this city do not have health insurance due to poverty. Almost 60 percent of the population lived below the poverty line as seen with the percentage of homeless people dwelling in the city. The high rate of air pollution is also an indication of poor neighborhoods from industries (Leads, 2014). The food offered to people is unhealthy with high calorie content, with Lily’s restaurant and Joes Grocery participating in causing health conditions to people.

I started the scavenger hunt at the Department of Parks and Recreation where several programs were being offered. The park contained kids’ summer programs, swimming lessons, after school programs and adult fitness courses for the citizens of Sentinel. Additionally, the department of parks and recreation had city sports leagues and offered nutrition and gardening courses to whoever was interested. Homelessness was a common problem in the park, which also registered issues such as trespassing and violent crime. At the Interfaith Church I encountered several homeless adults getting served at the Soup Kitchen inside the church.

Next I moved to the healthcare system where several seniors were benefiting from government entitlement assistance. I also visited the Social Services department that offers WIC and SNAP to women and children in the city. The elderly were offered with living units options in the form of independent apartments and nursing homes.

When I drove to City Hall, I witnessed several children and adult protective services on offer, including adoption assistance and head start services. About 200,000 in the city were using Medicaid and over 100,000 were on Medicare based on the data from the city.

The Better Health Clinic was another stop whereby it offers several health services to its citizens. Cancer screening, pregnancy testing, STD services and contraception were some of the services offered in this clinic. Pregnancy seems to be on the rise based on data from the city

I also made a stop at the Affordable Housing Project that offers housing units such as 1-bedroom, 2-bedroom and studio units. The common problems here are pollution from nearby factory, dogs barking and police activity in the area.

Data Analysis 

Data from Sentinel city shows several health problems including lack of food and sanitation due to hard economic times and sexually transmitted diseases due to lack of proper public awareness. There is a risk of health conditions due to unsafe foods as shown with Joe’s grocery that has reported several infections. The restaurants have been serving unhealthy food that risks the health of communities in the area. There is also a health risk from consuming high-calorie foods from fast-food restaurants in the city.

Sanitation is a problem in the city with air and water pollution a common factor, which threatens the health of its people. Waste management is not handled well in Sentinel city with industries releasing sewage to the water bodies while polluting the air as well. People may experience respiratory diseases due to the pollution which is a threat to the population (Leads, 2014). As people continue to breathe the polluted air, they expose themselves to pathogens and other health problems that risk their lives. At the same time, the STI prevalence in Sentinel is a health problem with high cases of HIV/AIDS reported in the city. This can arise from unsafe sexual practices that also leads to unwanted pregnancies

Three Problems 

The three top most problems from this city include environmental health, diseases related to sexual life and violence. According to Healthy People 2020, health centers should strive to achieve several goals regarding the health of its people ( People, 2020) .

The first risk is the sexual health of people with a considerable rate of HIV/AIDS in Sentinel city. The city recorded 7 cases of STDs in the previous year mainly among youth below 25 years. The condition can cause several consequences such as socioeconomic burdens, infertility and increased risk of other illnesses. Health people 2020 has a goal of promoting healthy sexual behaviors and increasing access to the care services for STDs ( People, 2020) . This problem can be prevented using appropriate sex education and providing community screening. These services are found in the Better Health Clinic available to all people.

Violence is another problems in the area that affects the health of people due to a risk of injury. High crime rates in a neighborhood can affect the social, emotional, and physical wellbeing of its people. The Sentinel city has a considerable number of violent and gang-related crime incidents as well as frequent arrests attributed to poverty and drug influences. The healthy people 2020 has a goal of preventing unintentional violence and injury while reducing their consequences. The injuries caused by violence are among the top 15 causes of death for Americans, which is why prevention is needed to reduce their consequences ( Ogden et al., 2002) . Prevention involves modifying the environment in the city to help change behaviors and mandating stricter legislation.

There is a risk of environmental health in this neighborhood with some parks containing stagnant water pools that can cause the risk of malaria infection. Mosquitoes can breed in such water pools, in the process risking the health of people in Sentinel city because of the availability of pathogens. Health 2020 goal is to protect the health, safety and quality of life for all people ( People, 2020) . Sentinel has a problem with environmental pollution from industries which can have an impact on the health of people. Interventions include public awareness on protecting the environment and adopting clean energy,

Community Resources to Address the Problems Identified 

Several resources can be used to address the problem of STDs in Sentinel City. These resources are evenly distributed throughout the city to ensure all individuals have access. The Better Health Clinic is one of the facilities that can be used to address the health problems in the city. The health facilities can provide public education on appropriate sexual behaviors and the risk of HIV/AIDS and STDs. Health facilities can help address health problems with nursing taking the center stage in enlightening patents on the best ways to keep safe from such conditions (Leads, 2014). The Sentinel City Affordable Housing Project is another community resource

Primary prevention topic 

In this city, the primary prevention topic has to be sexually transmitted diseases and teen pregnancies. Community members have to understand the importance of maintaining a healthy sex life by practicing safe sexual practices. The city has several tools and facilities that can help raise public awareness regarding safe sex practices and reduce the percentage of teenage pregnancy in the city. The public campaigns will influence young people into practicing health promotion ( Eileen, 2017) .

Application of Assessment Strategies to Future Simulation 

This simulation exercise allowed me to move across the Sentinel city and observe the different ways people live. This movement also presented an opportunity to identify health problems in the city and determine how they relate to the Healthy people 2020 goals. After understanding the health issues, it is possible to develop a solution that can prevent complications (Leads, 2014). Furthermore, through this simulation exercise, I gained the skills necessary to understand a community and how to encourage people into practicing safe activities in their health. 

Windshield Survey 

A windshield survey is used in observing Sentinel city to get a view of the urban neighborhood and its components. The study provided an opportunity to observe several aspects of the city including the physical, economic, and social factors. It helped in assessing several core elements of Sentinel city that could be observed when driving along the road. Physical aspects in every society define it and serve as significant factors distinguishing one culture from another ( Catherine, 2016) . This windscreen survey looks to identify objective data in Sentinel city by collecting observed data.

The departure area was Aver Tech Center along the Ashley road that has a diverse culture comprising of whites and Hispanics. The overall appearance of this city was pleasant with clean roads and modern architecture buildings. Several health facilities could be noticed along the streets, including med care urgent care center and a dentist office. The community also comprised several outdoor eating areas, including Italian restaurants. In this neighborhood, a majority of the people seen on the sidewalks were adults with little sight of children.

As the bus entered Casper Park District, a majority of the people were whites and Latinos, as seen on the streets. The neighborhood is clean but has old buildings and has a majority of the necessities, including fruit vendors, bookshops, and daycare along the road. Some buildings contained graffiti on the outer walls, while there was a sight of trash bags and dumpsters outside the premises. The road has some cracks that needed repair as well as dumpsters along the way.

The next neighborhood was the Industrial heights that are primarily dominated by Latinos and African Americans. The building has old buildings with some containing graffiti on the outer walls. The most of the city was clean but contained old buildings showing cracks that needed repair. At the same time, some of the roads in the city were dirty and contained cracks and debris. People were seen strolling on the streets of this town, comprising of both adults and teenagers. The people appear to be walking towards the grocery stores or downtown stores.

Lastly, the bus entered the fourth district that was the Nightingale that is mostly dominated by Whites and Hispanics. This area has modern buildings with right roads. At the same time, as the bus drove through the streets, I was able to see school-going children playing in a playground of their elementary school. The neighborhood also had fruit and vegetable vendors along the streets where people visited. For example, the area ha bookstores, daycares, art galleries, coffee bean stores, barbershops, and restaurants.

Task 2: Ebola Outbreak 

There was an Ebola outbreak in 2013 in three West African countries before spreading to other parts of the world. This was one of the highest impact epidemics in the history of communicable disease outbreaks since the medical community did not have any cure or vaccinations and was not prepared to handle it. The Ebola virus is capable of causing deaths within a few days of exposure if it is left untreated. More than 11,000 deaths were reported from the Ebola outbreak raising questions regarding its rapid spread.


The first patient to show symptoms of the Ebola Virus was in Guinea in 2013 before the virus spread throughout the country. It later spread to neighboring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone leading to high awareness of the condition. The virus was declared a catastrophe in august 2014 by the World Health Organization due to affecting many people and lacking treatment.

In the United States, the first case was reported in September 2014 when a man traveling back from Liberia was diagnosed with the virus. The nurses who attended to the patient also tested positive for the Ebla virus symptoms. By the time the condition was contained, over 28000 people had been infected and 11,000 died from this virus. The emergency declaration was lifted in April 2016 when the virus had been contained.

Route of Transmission 

The nature of the Ebola virus spread raised several humanitarian concerns as it caught the government and medical agencies by surprise. This virus thrives in bodily fluids sic as blood and sweat, which means it can be transmitted through contact or air when fluids get into the air. Infected syringes can also be a route of Ebola Virus transmission. This virus is transmitted through contact with a patient diagnosed with the virus. The virus is highly contagious and has the potential of affecting a whole community in a short time when poorly controlled. In essence, the route of transmission for the Ebola Virus is through anima to human, or human to human contact. For example, someone can contract the virus by handling an infected animal

How it Impacts the Community 

This communicable disease greatly affected the communities in West Africa which lacked enough infrastructures. When the virus enters the human body, it causes uncontrolled bleeding that can lead to death within a few days if untreated. This affected the health of people while creating a burden to the health institutions and government budgets that dedicated all their money on dealing with the virus. Inadequate structures in the region with a weak healthcare system contributed to the high spread of the virus. The disease spread quickly from the remote area to other parts of the country due to inadequate health infrastructure to detect and prevent it.

Most of the vulnerable groups for the Ebola outbreak were children, pregnant women and the elderly who could easily succumb to the illness. Unprotected healthcare workers were also highly susceptible to contracting the virus. The transmission was also likely to affect people traveling to the Ebola risk areas due to the high risk of getting in touch with infected patients. In communities, the infection stretched health systems to the limit while affecting other functions such as school closure from fear of spreading the virus.

Reporting Protocol 

The best way of controlling the Ebola virus was by reporting any suspected symptoms and alerting medical professionals to take action. The idea was to address the problem before the virus has spread to larger geographical areas. Early diagnosis was the best preventive measure that would allow isolation of the patients to prevent its spread. The participation of international agencies was crucial in dealing with the Ebola virus.

There was a need to quarantine all infected patients for 21 days as one way of controlling the spread of this virus. Quarantine helped administer appropriate treatments to affected patients without spreading it to more people. Furthermore, isolation of Ebola patients was also used as a preventive measure to prevent the spread of a virus. Community awareness was crucial in containing the Ebola virus. The society is supposed to understand how the virus spreads and different ways of preventing its spread. A majority of deaths from the Ebola virus in West African were attributed to a lack of awareness of its spread. Family members got in contact with their infected loved ones, in the process of spreading the virus to more people due to lack of knowledge.


Catherine, N. (2016). Best Practice in Strengthening Community System Information.  Measure Evaluation: North Carolina University , 2-37. 

Eileen, T. (2017). Teaching Rn‑Bsn Students Community Health Using an Immersive Virtual Environment.  International Journal on Innovations in Online Education , 12  (5), 2-45. 

Leads, P. (2014). Community Health Care and Collaboration.  Journal of health care and nursing, 31-45.

Ogden, C. L., Kuczmarski, R. J., Flegal, K. M., Mei, Z., Guo, S., Wei, R., & Johnson, C. L. (2002). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts for the United States: improvements to the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics version.  Pediatrics 109 (1), 45-60. 

People, H. (2020). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. 

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 15). Community Health and Population-Focused Nursing.


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