30 Dec 2022


Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD): Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

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DJD has been described as an inflammation of the body joints and other tissues. Similarly, it has been defined as degenerative arthritis which commonly affects body parts such as knees, lower back, and neck. 

It’s primarily incidence and prevalence occurs when the body is aging naturally. Degenerative joint disease is a condition where the joints and surrounding tissues are inflamed. It is also known as osteoarthritis and concurrently the most common arthritis. 

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On the other hand, the primary cause of pathophysiology in DJD is the natural aging of the cartilage. Cartilage is a different strong as well as smooth elastic tissue that covers and protects the edges of the long bones at the joints. Its extracellular matrix partakes it, predominantly constitutes of type II collagen and proteoglycans. 

Pagenstert, et al. (2013) observed that the process of DJD physical examination, the doctor will check on for swelling, temperature or tenderness. Also, evaluate for any bony knobs on joint and the pattern of the joints affected. During the process, the doctor will also examine any occurrence of unequal leg lengths and weakness at the muscles. The evaluation process takes place in the kidneys, liver, lungs and heart. 

According to the Guzman, et al. (2015) based on DJD there is evidence of the treatment plan and patient education. In this sense, treatment is effective without medication. The patient is advised to take a rest of about twelve to twenty-four hours. An extension of rest may also cause joint stiffness. Intake of vitamins C and D contributes to the improvement of joint health. Weight loss in the case of obesity is highly recommended since it is strongly linked to OA. Even a slight weight cut is sure to reduce the risk. The primary treatment without medication is physical therapy and exercise sessions. It helps in improving the flexibility of muscles and even strengthens them. 

In conclusion, the case of medication treatment, pain relief drugs are used. Joint injections can also apply for patients with arthritis pain (Bogduk, 2012). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for both reductions of inflammation and reduction of pain. In severe situations, surgery is required since the condition may not respond to any of the above-listed treatments. The different types of surgery include joint replacement, arthroscopy and joint irrigation, cartilage grafting and realignment among other few ones. 


Barg, A., Pagenstert, G. I., Horisberger, M., Paul, J., Gloyer, M., Henninger, H. B., & Valderrabano, V. (2013). Supramalleolar osteotomies for degenerative joint disease of the ankle joint: indication, technique and results.   International orthopaedics ,   37 (9), 1683-1695. 

Bogduk, N. (2012). Degenerative joint disease of the spine.   Radiologic Clinics of North America ,   50 (4), 613-628. 

Guzman, J., Oen, K., Tucker, L. B., Huber, A. M., Shiff, N., Boire, G., ... & Stringer, E. (2015). Degenerative joint disease.   Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ,   74 (10), 1854-1860. 

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 16). Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD): Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment.


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