18 Apr 2022


Emerging Technologies in Cyber Security

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Cyber space is one of the new elements in the world influencing its economy and security. The security agencies depend on cyber space to function and defend their countries. Advances in technologies have led to a massive growth in cyber security and cyber space technologies. With the introduction and spread of internet, cyber-attacks have become numerous, affecting different aspects of businesses, organizations, government, and trade. Online terrorism, advanced persistent threats, and hacking are attacks taking place in cyber space and billions of dollars are stolen as a result. Hence, there is a global demand to increase the security of cyber space networks.

The national security of the United States is dependent on the infrastructure of the cyber space. According to the Executive Order 13636, it is the responsibility of the federal government to maintain the security in the cyber space in a bid to promote efficiency, security, confidentiality, privacy, and economic affluence in the citizenry. The managers of corporations and private sectors have responsibilities in incorporation of cyber security risks as part of the risk management program (Crawford, 2013). The managers need to comprehend the best approaches to cyber security management of risk and align the business needs and resources with cyber security. Cyber-attacks have resulted in massive losses in funds and confidential data. As a result of the increasing threats that are becoming more prevalent, the cyber security technologies need to be aligned to the evolving technologies. There are many emerging cyber security technologies, which will include smart card technologies, remote agent technology, real time forensic analysis, and research and development. 

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Emerging Cyber Technologies

Remote Agent Technologies

The remote agent technologies are centered on remote agents for conduction of remote tests on the security of the networks. When a need arises to patch a network with other related functions, the remote agent technology is utilized. The technology travels within the network between the host and the execution codes advancing independently. The technology also uses mobile agents to monitor the security of networks in a computing environment. The technology also conducts forensic examination of the individual networks by auditing the functions thereby safeguarding cyber security. 

To achieve comprehensive cyber security, remote agent technology is combined with automated cyber technologies (Dinicu, 2014). Multiple approaches are used to secure networks through utilization of consolidated security functions. Organizations using the remote agent technologies invest heavily in technology and work force. Remote agent technologies are used to check the vulnerability of the systems through a scan, detection of intruders, and continuous service checkup (Amanda, Pandey, & Punia, 2014). The remote agent technologies reduce the resources required to safeguard infrastructure that is geographically dispersed through handling cyber threats proactively. Some of the applications used as remote agent technologies include OpenNMS and SysMon. They provide dynamic platforms of responding to evolving cyber-attacks.

The remote agent technologies are used in forensics to merge and streamline forensic tests. The main tool used is the GRR Rapid Response architecture, which performs forensics tests on a valid scale level. The tool helps in real time analysis of a network through providing accurate and timely information. Organizations use the technology by incorporating it in the network. The technology travels through the servers and performs a query to establish the task required to be achieved and then sends feedback to the host. A real example of the technology is .NET remoting used to bring into play a function on the server, runs a communication to the proxy server, and permits the user to access the server. 

Government Supporting Role

  Remote agent technologies can help the government servers to guard its massive amount of information from cyber-attacks. The government is not able to maintain the human ability needed to safeguard the information. The remote technologies will help the government to monitor all aspects of the system keeping it secure. The technology will help the government to achieve tasks such as to patch and investigate user action changes in the system and detect insider threats. Many cyber threats are perpetrated partly by insiders who have information on how the system of a given corporation works. The government will benefit by use of this technologies by minimizing security breach and cyber-attacks. The technology is able to secure the operational networks of the government (Alacatel, 2014). 

NASA uses the remote agent technologies to have more control of the operations. The space craft is fitted with software called Deep Space 1. The software enables the spacecraft to make decisions concerning direction and ground control. The software uses algorithm reasoning models that enable goal directed planning and fault protection approaches. The software is fitted with a planner to examine the state of system and make correction within its computing environment. 

The organizations integrate the remote agent technology with the infrastructure to make a network, which increases the efficiency of cyber security. The issue of cyber security is a priority for the federal government. The government has established mechanisms to meet the security need through creation of National Cyber security center for excellence. The center is collaboration between private and public bodies to develop open-ended solutions that are customized to individual needs (Garfinkel, 2010). National Cyber security center for excellence has the mandate to develop blocks aimed at alleviating the challenge of continuous data monitoring. It also aims at developing viable solutions to cyber-attacks, which can be applied in the industries. The government through National Cyber security center for excellence has a role of overseeing the development of software that will allow timely collection of information and secure exchange of data from the computers. Moreover, the federal government should support the development of software through financial and human capital investments.

Real-time Forensic Analysis

This modern approach is almost being fully actualized. It centers on constant monitoring and situational responsiveness. It is similar to the remote agent but employs real time forensic analysis. Real time forensic analysis relies on triaging and preserving proofs. It has emerged as a reliable tool in cyber space and criminal investigations. Forensic analysis is conducted in a very short span and considers data volatility. The technology uses the Moore’s Law of computational analysis. Hence, the computational resources and data storage capacities have grown at a rapid rate (Hsu, Marinucci, & Voas, 2015). Rapid innovations in the real time forensic analysis leave a gap in the field of forensics, which has not aligned to the evolving changes. Therefore, the security personnel need additional tools to safeguard their networks. 

The use of real time digital analysis will help to address the need through a combination of software platforms and triage technologies. The real time digital analysis helps to run a series of continuous analysis to identify emerging cyber threats. The technique has the capacity to collect relevant and probable volatile data. Real-time analysis runs continuously on the system hence reducing data loss and provides comprehensive details of operations within the network. The network real time analysis follows an appraisal trail and systematic patterns(Hsu, Marinucci, & Voas, 2015). The patterns portray specific behaviors, which are monitored. Detection of unusual behavior sound an alarm and an investigation begins. The system is given a large data storage space to allow for information analysis. The real time analysis involves maintenance of data and processing of logs. Real time analysis has allowed the forensic professionals to analyze data in multiple devices including the encrypted data.

Real time forensic analysis helps to monitor the future by maintaining an awareness of cyber threats and supporting the risk management process in an organization. The main aim in using real time forensic analysis is to transfer, avoid, and mitigate the risk of attack through continuous monitoring of the system and information(Hsu, Marinucci, & Voas, 2015). It monitors the system by monitoring the vulnerability and alerting in the event of a threat. Through real time forensic analysis, the system is able to analyze the network, filter data, and attack all the external threats in a timely manner. The system monitors through use of log analysis and gives a comprehensive understanding of the network performance. The organizations should install Firewalls and log management systems inbuilt with real time network to safeguard against cyber-attacks and threats. A real world example of real time forensic analysis is software for sophisticated protection made by Solera Networks. The software provides a real time situational responsiveness, detects threats and viruses, and reduces loss of data. The software provider has been rated one of the best in Forensic software products.

The Role of Federal Government

The real time forensic analysis has many advantages to offer to the government and its security agencies. The forensic department needs to embrace the modern devices since the cyber threats have increased their technologies. Most of the old and historic technologies are more vulnerable to the cyber-attacks. It is hard to trace and prosecute the perpetrators of cyber-attack and intrusions, therefore the government should invest in real time analysis for timely detection. The real time analysis technologies will help the government to detect an attack and stop it thereby reducing the effects of the damage caused by the cybercrime (Hsu, Marinucci, & Voas, 2015). The government will benefit from using the real time analysis software, as it will maintain the security of its networks. In the past times, hackers have been able to hack networks without being detected for a long period. Hackers use advanced persistent threats to gain access into the government systems. Use of real time forensic analysis will help to avert the threat to the network security and add a layer of security for the confidential data.

Governments often develop their own systems, which get information from various sources, compile, and use it to identify threats and respond to any potential attack. The system used monitors the computing environment and establishes a risk-scoring program. The system is able to assess risk in the computing environment and assigns scores to various vulnerability issues. Scanners measure the vulnerability levels and security compliance monitors passwords and user accounts. The government has an obligation to defend the computing resources in the country. The federal government has the responsibility of providing guidance and supporting the growth of technologies to maintain cyber security. The government should share information with the necessary stakeholders and formulate policies geared towards financial investments of cyber security systems.

Research and Development

 Research and development is a program and a cyber-approach used by governments to fund innovative ideas, technologies, and initiatives in cyber security. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) is the body responsible for the research and development. The main mandate of the body is to meet the needs for advanced technology, provide leadership in networking of computer systems, and to speed up the development of cyber space technologies through training and education. The research and development program was established by the High performance Computing Act of 1991. 

Another body that deals with research and development is Cyber Security and Information Assurance (CSIA). It is mandated to organize programs geared to prevention, detection, response, and recovery of acts that compromise the privacy and integrity of the computing systems. The programs offered by CSIA aim at the provision of infrastructure and communications required to run the economy. The program also supports the Department of defense with all issues related to internet, security of the networks, and availability of the computer systems. It also deals with research in upcoming hardware and software in security of the information systems (Bayuk & Horowitz, 2011). 

Identification of emerging technologies is a complicated issue in the cyber security field. The matter is challenging due to absence of a unified cyber security policy implying a counter productivity in the advancement of the cyber security technologies. The federal government has identified over one hundred cyber security projects in the year 2014. The funding of the projects has been postponed creating a gap in adoption of modern technologies to fight cyber-attacks. There is underinvestment in the emerging technologies in cyber security (Borrett, Carter & Wespi, 2013). Investment in research and development in cyber space is an imperative part of securing the nation’s systems. To address the need for new technologies in curbing cybercrime, alignment of funding and priority areas in research is required. 

Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) has the mandate of overseeing programs that promote research and development in cyber security. The organization has the responsibility of establishing comprehensive cyber security defenses against attacks. The efforts in research and development should be merged with innovative technologies to overcome cyber threats (Jang-Jaccard & Nepal, 2014). The critical infrastructure of United States of America is privately owned. Most of the research and development projects emerge from the private sector. The government has a stake in guiding the future of cyber security. Different bodies both in the private and public sectors have taken the initiative to perform prioritized research in cyber security. For instance, North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) created the guidelines for system controls. The body collaborates with other agencies to publish the best practices and cyber security approaches manuals. The federal government has a cyber-security research program that helps in combating the vulnerabilities of cyber space through establishment of security measures and policies. The program also establishes cyber economic incentives and target defenses to curb cyber threats. The federal program complements other agencies in provision of commercialized cyber security to the private firms (Hsu, Marinucci, & Voas, 2015). 

Organizations and federal bodies use the information collected from research and development to strengthen the security in their computing systems in all elements. The federal government facilitates the passage of laws and Acts of parliament to provide a framework for protection of data and networks. A real life example of research and development is the MEMEX program, which initiates online search advances with the objective of sharing and accessing information (Karabacak, Ozkan, & Baykal, 2016). The developments in research will help in the improvement of information retrieval, collection, and other online functions. The MEMEX program helps in tracking information of operations in military and law enforcement missions.

The Role of Federal Government

  Research and development has many advantages in the field of cyber security. It helps in early detection and prevention of attacks to the national security. Through research, the government uses different approaches to advance knowledge and address problems in the cyber space. The federal government has an obligation of investing in research and development projects (Bayuk & Horowitz, 2011). The projects should be geared to identification and development of technologies to the emerging cyber-attacks and vulnerability. The government has a role in providing leadership in generation of technological initiatives to defend the national computer systems and information. The leadership should give guidance on how to identify threats and coordinate with relevant agencies to develop research and development solutions.

The research and development Cyber security Act of 2002 places on a high pedestal the significance of forensic and cyber threat detection. The Act increased the federal funding for cyber security projects and research. The government has a role of identifying the most serious threats to information security and computing infrastructure (Tiwari, Shailendra, Tiwari, R, 2010). Through research and development, the approaches to protect the systems against cyber threats and attacks will be discovered. The development of forensic ascription technologies will help in identifying the source of intrusion and preventing losses from cyber-attacks. The government has a role in providing the necessary information and data needed for the development of technologies. Through research and development, future technologies that can safeguard information will be developed and utilized by all users of computing infrastructure. 

Smart Card Technology

 The smart card technology uses a chip for identification purposes. The data is embedded in the microchip. The smart card authenticates and stores data. The card has a large storage capacity and can process sensitive information (Streufert, 2010). The card has to be secure to maintain the integrity of the data stored. Organizations use the card as a memory device, which is non-volatile. The operating system of the card has a series of instructions in its Read Only Memory (ROM). The cards are made specific to particular instructions and are not very flexible. A new smart card has been invented that has multiple applications. The new card requires high security to safeguard its data. The card is fitted with a technology that enables it run many applications without interference.

Applications are fitted in the card directly using the internet making the card very flexible. The card has a JAVA compiler to convert data into executable language. The card rejects any invalid instructions. Therefore, one application cannot access information from other applications (Luna, Rhine, Myhra, Sullivan & Kruse, 2016). Hence, the security of the smart card is very high. Each card has a certified key pair used to prepare a packet of data. The smart card technology allows organizations and the federal government agencies to carry a lot of information in a small card thereby saving on data storage costs. The smart card technology is easy to use since its applications are easy to understand. The smart card technology has reduced cyber threats and attacks since it is highly secured. The information in the smart card is encrypted as it is passed from a computing hardware to the other. The government should embrace the use of the smart card since it is cost effective in its establishment.

The Role of the Federal Government

The advantages of the smart card technology are numerous to organizations and federal agencies. The identification document fitted with multiple types of information such as passwords, personal data, encryptions, and processors. Smart cards will enable protection of national data since they do not allow access of information by unauthorized users. A secure smart card will prevent compromising of data integrity (Bayuk & Horowitz, 2011). The increasing cyber-attacks and security breaches on networks, the smart card technology is the best way through which the federal government can protect the information of its citizenry. The smart technology will help the government to safeguard its employees’ identification information. It implies that the service providers, contractors, and government data will be reliable and safe. Innovations have to be implemented using the smart card technologies and authentication procedures. The authentication is based on known facts and assures the user of integrity and confidentiality. The federal government has to invest in smart card technologies in the military missions, identification of citizens, and in forensic audits (Basani, 2014). The government major role in use of smart card technologies is the establishment of a legal framework that will ensure the security of the cards and the computing environment. The smart cards have to be very secure since they bear personal and financial information. 

The federal government can increase the security of the smart card technologies by creating safe and secure Point of Sale (POS) Machines where the cards are swiped. Creation of a trusted card use environment is the responsibility of the government. Identification and mitigation of attacks on cards will strengthen the use of card systems and computer infrastructure. 

Liability Recommendations

The government has a huge role to play in maintaining the security of information technology. The issue of cyber security is one of the most imperative issues the government has to solve. Concerns arise when addressing the issue of emerging technologies and the role of the government. The precise role of the federal government and private organizations has not been defined. To obtain a long-term partnership between all the stakeholders, each party must have defined roles and responsibilities (Basani, 2014). The element of personal privacy comes into play when addressing the issue of cyber security. National cyber security initiatives are usually opposed due to the concern of personal privacy rights. Real time forensic analysis and remote agent technologies have the capacity to comprise personal identification information. Laws to protect personal data are in place but the proponents of privacy rights fear that technologies may be intrusive. The personal privacy concern can be addressed through use of automated remote security tools. This means that only a small number of computer users access the personal information. The liability emanating from wrongful and intentional disclosures will be minimized.

Protection of cyber space is the responsibility of everyone. All the stakeholders need to protect the cyber space through embracement of emerging technologies and information exchange. Use of forensic information to discover the culprits of cybercrime is not enough in elimination of cybercrime. Real time forensic analysis, smart card, remote agent technologies, and research and development are emerging technologies that can be used to minimize cybercrimes and attacks. Cyber security effort is necessary in overcoming cybercrimes and attacks. Corporate liability is imperative to alleviating cyber-attacks. Currently, organizations are not required to disclose when they experience cyber-attacks. The companies are not required to report incidences affecting their operations and financial status. This trend falls short of the information exchange expectation. Sharing of information on cyber-attacks is necessary in mitigating the problem. Laws should be put in place to make the corporations feel safe in disclosing information security breaches.

The federal government should continue to support innovations in cyber security especially in national security issues. An insider or foreign-based attacks especially in terrorist attacks can perform cyber-attacks. The infrastructure of the country should be maintained and guarded form cyber-attacks. The effects of cyber-attacks are far reaching and the efforts of the federal government and relevant agencies are required in guiding cyber security strategy. Cyber security can be maintained and achieved with development and adoption of the necessary technologies 


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