12 Apr 2022


Human Participants in Medical Research

Format: APA

Academic level: University

Paper type: Essay (Any Type)

Words: 604

Pages: 2

Downloads: 0

Human research participants are individuals who participate in study especially medical experiments. Medical research may involve experiments such as finding out why people in a certain areas do not contract a certain diseases. A study may involve drug testing to find out if a certain drug may cure a suspected disease. Human research participants vary in age, class, income, and economic activities. The society values human rights and ensures their protection during experiments (Fiske & Hauser, 2014). The vulnerable subjects are in most cases given special protection by the government regulations. Participant in medical research only consent when they are fully aware of the consequences of the experiment. Experiments are never designed to expose the participants in any form of harm. 

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) are in charge of ensuring that the human participants are under protection. The issue of protecting human subjects came about after harmful effects of destruction of participated in the past researches, among these were the Nazi medical war crimes of 1939 to 1945 (Fiske & Hauser, 2014). The experiment violated both the medical ethics and the rights of the participants.

It’s time to jumpstart your paper!

Delegate your assignment to our experts and they will do the rest.

Get custom essay

The Office for Human Research Participant replaced the NIH office of protecting participant from research risks. The outlines handling of the subjects during research, and with it comes the policies for Institutional Review Boards. Belmont report advanced some restrictions and principles for protecting human subjects. Among the areas identified by literature material include: 

Personal Autonomy: Individuals participating in the research should be allowed to make their own personal decision to participate in research with no any form of coercion. The vulnerable members of the society are also protected through the consent procedures. 

Beneficence – the research studies must have maximal benefits and minimal risks to the human participants.

Justice - the possible benefits and risks of the research should be distributed fairly among societies, individuals and even groups.

HHS has various subsections developed to protect participants during research. Among the areas of interest are: 

Subpart A: Protection of human subjects. The subsection identifies mainly individual who participates in medical research. 

Subpart B: Protection of neonates, human fetuses, and pregnant mothers who are involved in a researches. This provision prohibits experiment that may compromise the health of the pregnant woman and the viability of the neonates.

Sub part C: The sub segment protects minority groups including prisoners involved in biomedical, or any other form of research. Prisoners have become subject to misuse owing to their delicate situation, The section protect them against health, personal activities involved, and the environment damage owing to researches. 

Subpart D: Children participants are identified as important subject of researches. HHS demands parental assent before children can be used to in experiments 

Subpart E: The section outlines the mandate of the Institutional Review Boards (IRB) registration. The IRB has the mandate to approve or disapprove any research activity thus assuring the individuals’ welfare in the study.

Advantages Subject Protection

Use of coercion was rampant in the traditional experiments. The new provisions ensure the human participants participate voluntarily with no any form of coercion. Respect for persons will ensure that those who lack mental and physical capacity have equal chance of participation in the researches, just like the other subjects (Aliyeva et al. 2013). The principles beneficence will protect the human subjects from exposure to risks and harmful effects during the medical study. It also ensures that the participants are subjected to maximum profit and benefits of the medical study. Subpart B of HHS regulations ensure the viability of neonates and the safety of vulnerable groups; it offers equal protection to participants. 

Disadvantages of Subject Protection

The regulations limit the participation levels. Researchers may fail chance the intended results since due to lack of study participants. The restrictions may be costly and the investigators may incur high cost of undertaking researches to maximize the possible benefits to the participants.


Fiske, S. T., & Hauser, R. M. (2014). Protecting human research participants in the age of big data.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 111 (38), 13675-13676.

Aliyeva, M., Clough, B. A., Campbell, M., Mateo, N. J., Zarean, M., & O'Donovan, A. (2013). Protocols for Protection of Human Participants: A Comparison of Five Countries.  Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 8 (3), 2-11.

Cite this page

Select style:


StudyBounty. (2023, September 14). Human Participants in Medical Research.


Related essays

We post free essay examples for college on a regular basis. Stay in the know!

Vaccine Choice Canada Interest Group

Vaccine Choice Canada Interest Group Brief description of the group Vaccine Choice Canada, VCC, denotes Canada's leading anti-vaccination group. Initially, the anti-vaccination group was regarded as Vaccination...

Words: 588

Pages: 2

Views: 146

Regulation for Nursing Practice Staff Development Meeting

Describe the differences between a board of nursing and a professional nurse association. A board of nursing (BON) refers to a professional organization tasked with the responsibility of representing nurses in...

Words: 809

Pages: 3

Views: 191

Moral and Ethical Decision Making

Moral and Ethical Decision Making Healthcare is one of the institutions where technology had taken lead. With the emerging different kinds of diseases, technology had been put on the frontline to curb some of the...

Words: 576

Pages: 2

Views: 89

COVID-19 and Ethical Dilemmas on Nurses

Nurses are key players in the health care sector of a nation. They provide care and information to patients and occupy leadership positions in the health systems, hospitals, and other related organizations. However,...

Words: 1274

Pages: 5

Views: 78

Health Insurance and Reimbursement

There are as many as 5000 hospitals in the United States equipped to meet the health needs of a diversified population whenever they arise. The majority of the facilities offer medical and surgical care for...

Words: 1239

Pages: 4

Views: 439

Preventing Postoperative Wound Infections

Tesla Inc. is an American based multinational company dealing with clean energy and electric vehicles to transition the world into exploiting sustainable energy. The dream of developing an electric car was...

Words: 522

Pages: 5

Views: 357


Running out of time?

Entrust your assignment to proficient writers and receive TOP-quality paper before the deadline is over.