Functional organizational chart/ structure
Matrix Organizational structure
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Before change occurs in an organization, the management must carry out certain activities to prepare the employees of the impending changes. These things prior to change constitute the unfreezing process. The management must create a vision for change that will excite and paint a picture that the organization and employees are focusing on a brighter tomorrow. Secondly, communicating and informing the employees about a plan for change is essential as this will allow them to adjust and be ready for the changes. Further, informing them of the change enhances the organization’s symbolic value as they will gain more trust in the management. Thirdly, the organization must develop a sense of urgency in the implementation of the planned change. The sense of urgency makes them feel that the change is needed to make the organization better (Burke, 2013) . Fourthly, building a coalition of employees to convince others that change is necessary is essential in achieving organization transformation. The coalition must consist of the most influential staff members. Fifthly, the management must provide support to the employees before implementing change. These employees need emotional and instrumental support, for instance, through conversations on the impact of the impending change. Six, employees must be allowed to participate in planning for the changes through their suggestions. Employees’ participation is critical since when involved, they tend to have positive perspectives about change (Burke, 2013) . Lastly, eliminate obstacles in the way of change since some employees may secretly be planning to scuttle the impending change.
After change has taken place in an organization, the management must strive to make it part of the organizational culture. Imperatively, it can carry out the following things. Firstly, make and inform employees that change is part of the organizational culture and it must be reflected in their daily activities while on duty or assignment; whether in the workplace or outside (Burke, 2013) . Secondly, share the successes gained since the changes began and publicize these benefits to all employees. Thirdly, monitor the activities of the employees so that they adhere and implement the new structures and policies. Fourthly, adaptation of the changes is essential and the changes must be embraced as soon as possible. In there is need for training, requisite training must be conducted for the employees to adjust accordingly. Further, these training must focus on building a change culture for employees and organization (Burke, 2013) . Successful organizational change forms part of the overall culture of the firm. Five, the organization must communicate change to its external stakeholders, particularly its suppliers and clients to ease some conflict that may arise out of the changes that these people may not be aware of, especially in sensitive organizational processes. These people must know the internal changes for effective communication. The last thing to be done is the assessment of the effectiveness of the changes. Analyses must be carried out to verify the effectiveness of the changes in regard to organizational goals and objectives.
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Resistance to change emanates from different sources that one can foresee. One source of resistance is the fear of failure. Most employees feel threatened because they doubt their capabilities to execute change. Imperatively, their confidence declines and may oppose change without a valid consideration of its benefits to their personal and career development needs (Brown, n.d). Secondly, loss of status is a source of resistance since such changes may affect structural and social aspects thus leading to change in power. For instance, adoption of new structures in an organization may lead to elimination of certain powerful positions and jobs. Again, managers may resist change because it may result to reduced authority. Thirdly, employees may resist change if the organization is not consistent in its reward system (Brown, n.d). Employees will resist change if they cannot foresee positive rewards for changing their duties, and routines at work. Another source of resistance to change denotes to breaking of routines as people find it difficult to leave some behavioral routines that a firm may consider as no longer necessary or appropriate. People like their comfort zones and find it good to continue with their role patterns. Therefore, people will naturally resist structural and cultural changes that may force them to move out of their comfort zones. Another source of foreseen resistance is the issue of incongruent group dynamics. In many cases, groups develop and enhance conformity to certain norms that guide the conduct of its members. Therefore, conformity to such groups discourages changes and employees may not be willing to accept change.
Organizations need plan of action to overcome resistance. The first course of action is to ensure that employees understand the change process and its long-term benefits at both personal and organizational level (Burke, 2013) . Secondly, employees need to be part of the change process so that they do not feel that their opinions have not been considered. Another step to overcome resistance is to offer training on the need for change and prepare the employees adequately. The next course of action involves making contingent plans incase resistance persists. However, resistance should not be viewed as a bad thing but one aspect that is important to an organization’s overall growth.
Brown, G. (n.d). “Resistance to Change in an Organization's Structure & Culture.”Accessed on March 4, 2017, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/resistance-change-organizations-structure-culture-16622.html
Burke, W. W. (2013). Organization change: Theory and practice . Sage Publications.