The goals of universal healthcare are only achievable through the persistent determination of midwives and nurses that are positioned purposefully in caring for patients at all levels. Notably, nurses make up the majority healthcare workers charged with day to day tasks of providing care to the population. This implies that the provision of universal healthcare services affects both the population and the healthcare practitioners as established in the theoretical foundation of studies used to this effect.
The first study is “The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Health Care Workforce” by Anderson, 2014. This study borrows from the interpersonal process of the nursing practice. From this theoretical framework, facts are provided regarding the interaction of the nurses and the healthcare system (Peplau, 1992). The researcher, Anderson, 2014 asserts that the health care system falls short of enough professionals, especially nurses to handle the projected increase in demand for healthcare services. The theoretical framework creates a clear matrix to guide the study since the researcher outlines that the increased demand for healthcare due to the healthcare system which points to the reader on the need for more nurses and healthcare personnel. Further, Anderson, 2014 presents facts on the work hours needed to successfully handle all paperwork pertaining to the increased demand for healthcare. Thus, the theoretical framework underlines the crucial aspect of healthcare workers in meeting the needs of universal healthcare.
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The second study used is “Assessment of universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in six middle-income countries” by Goeppel et al., 2016. The study has a well-structured theoretical framework basing on the problem –solving approach foundation of nursing. From this theoretical framework, the health problems facing the nursing practice in conjunction to the needs of the people (Taylor, 1997). Actually, the study takes the reader back to the various assemblies held by the world health organization in its call for universal health coverage. The theory makes the utmost noteworthy development by relating with research findings from other studies. As such, they present facts regarding the rising rates of non-communicable diseases that serve to make the process more challenging by keeping the health workers, particularly nurses engaged for long hours. As such, the adoption of health insurance schemes by middle income countries is brought out in a bid to illustrate the pursuit of realizing universal health coverage. The middle income countries to be investigated are outlined as well as the particular group of interest, that is, adults aged fifty and above. As such, the problem is clearly articulated with the various gaps that the study sought to investigate in the health sector outlined.
The third study is “Access to care, health status, and health disparities in the United States and Canada: results of a cross-national population-based survey” by Lasser et al., 2006. Notably, the researchers begin by acknowledging the existing facts on the health system in the US and in Canada. They back up their facts with statistics, asserting that despite the significantly less per capita expenditure on healthcare in Canada as compared to the US, the Canadians outlived the Americans by two to three years. Although the nursing practices are of high standards, the population of the US seemed less contented with the system. This is in line with the interpersonal process foundation in nursing which looks into the interaction between the healthcare system, the clients and the nurses (Peplau, 1992). Another outstanding disparity presented is that Canada utilizes the universal health insurance system which is not done in the US. In explaining the disparity, the researchers refer to other studies that point out the reason as being the better quality of healthcare in Canada as compared to the US. Referring to a different researcher’s work, the theoretical framework in the study asserts that the socioeconomic inequalities play a major role in sidelining the less fortunate from accessing quality healthcare as the healthcare system is unfavorable to the poor. However, the researchers point out the limits to their generalization mentioning that data on health habits and processes of care with a population based approach in the two countries are few, thus pointing out research problem to be addressed.
The fourth study is by Light, 2003 and its title is “Universal health care: lessons from the British experience”. As he commences the research, it is clear that the theoretical framework is based on the problem solving approach which seeks to address the challenges relating to the needs of healthcare by clients (Taylor, 1997). Light, 2003 mentions the challenges that Britain faced in actualizing the idea of health services available to all. The theoretical foundation enables the researcher to work towards their objectives through referring to empirical studies by other researchers in furthering the nursing practice. In this regard, the extraordinary steps that the government and major stakeholders took in ensuring the progression of universal health coverage are presented especially in enlarging the nursing practice to cover the needs of the populace. Further, the theoretical framework looks into the healthcare system of the United States, stating that it lacks universal access. The researcher intellectually transitions from the facts and shows certain important observations such as the characterization of the British NHS as socialist by the conservatists as a major hindrance to the adoption of universal health coverage in the US. Through the theoretical framework, the researcher points out existing gaps that hinder health insurance in the US as an industrialized nation.
The fifth study is by Maimaris et al., 2013 with the title “The influence of health systems on hypertension awareness, treatment, and control: a systematic literature review”. An in depth review of facts is presented on the prevalence of hypertension in the year 2008. Further, the researchers present the statistics on the deaths caused by hypertension where 7.5 million people die each year. Other facts on hypertension are presented with the assertion that lifestyle changes go a long way in preventing and mitigating the effects of hypertension. From these facts, the theoretical foundation is depicted to be on the interpersonal process in reducing human suffering (Peplau, 1992). The essential role of nurses in managing hypertension is emphasized. Nevertheless, the researchers present that lack of early diagnosis results in fatalities as people seem unaware of their condition until it is too late. In explaining the reasons for this trend, the researchers point out the various weaknesses in the health systems that impede the treatment and control of hypertension and other non-communicable chronic diseases which is part of the nursing practice. Through the theoretical framework, the researchers point out the need to investigate the healthcare arrangements in regional and national healthcare system with the aim of establishing their influence on the awareness, control and treatment of hypertension.
The sixth study is “Universal Health Coverage and Health Outcomes” by Pearson et al., 2016. The study uses a comprehensive theoretical framework on the theory of human becoming that emphasizes on value priorities to outline the facts on universal health coverage ( Parse, 1999 ). To begin with, a detailed meaning of universal health coverage is presented to highlight the constituents of a healthcare system that has universal coverage. A better understanding of the connection between universal health coverage and life expectancy is presented as a way of demonstrating its utmost importance. In reference to other studies, the researchers state that from a global perspective, Japan has constantly taken a leading role in promoting universal health coverage. Through a comprehensive review of the achievements made by Japan for insisting on universal health coverage, it is evident that improved health outcomes can only be realized when quality healthcare is accessible and affordable as well as making its distribution equitable. The entire healthcare workforce including nurses are given priority in actualizing the universal health coverage. The concept of universal health coverage is well developed to illustrate the massive outcomes associated with its implementation.
The seventh study is “Challenges facing the United States of America in implementing universal coverage” by Rice et al., 2014. The study presents critical observations regarding the less favorable health outcomes in the US as compared to other developed countries. The study employs the interpersonal process theoretical framework to outline the relationship between the healthcare system and the clients (Peplau, 1992).The researchers note that more patients were likely to forego care due to costs in the US which contributed to poor health outcomes. Moreover, the study presents the context for restructuring the healthcare system which has significant differences to European nations. A major problem pointed out is the private approach to health insurance that leaves the economically poor citizens without health insurance. With these facts, the researchers advance their in depth analysis of the US healthcare system with the aim of establishing the challenges encountered in trying to implement universal health coverage.
The eighth study is “comparisons of health care systems in the United States, Germany and Canada” by Ridic et al., 2012. In this case, no theory was used as the topic was quite self-explanatory. Nevertheless, a theoretical basis on the theory of human becoming would benefit the study as it would point out the reasons for making the comparisons of the healthcare systems in the three countries. Moreover, such a theoretical framework presents pertinent researches that easily apply to the problem being addressed.
The ninth study is by Schveitzer et al., 2016 with the title, “Nursing challenges for universal health coverage: a systematic review”. The study begins by asserting g that health workers have a pivotal role to play in advancing the post 2015 agenda for development. By this fact alone, the human caring theoretical framework is evident as it seeks to emphasize the importance of transactions between the nurses and the clients ( Watson, 1997 ). Among the health workers, nurses are given particular attention for making up the largest proportion of health workers as well as being on the frontline of all medical services. Moreover, the crucial part played by nurses in making primary healthcare a success is looked into with the inclination of presenting the challenges that nurses encounter in their profession.
The tenth study is titled “Costs of health care administration in the United States and Canada by Woolhandler et al., 2003. The theoretical framework utilized is the problem solving approach that outlines the key problems in the nursing practice in relation to meeting the health needs of the people (Taylor, 1997).The study looks into the progress made in technology in augmenting service delivery in the health care systems of both countries. Moreover, the progress made has resulted in better working conditions for the nurses who are at the frontline of healthcare delivery. With this comparison, crucial research questions crop up on the administrative costs implicated in the healthcare systems of both countries with reference to prior studies. These questions pave way for the research and also provide a guide to the reader on the research method as well as the pertinent issues to be addressed by the research.
Reflecting on the overall results found, I think that theoretical frameworks are a useful foundation for evidence. Through the theoretical framework, the pertinent areas of nursing practice in conjunction with the healthcare system appear conspicuously. Among the various studies, the medical workforce has been outlined as particularly important in realizing the objective. An important fact is that healthcare systems that are founded on the commitment and availability of nurses and midwives to ensure improved outcomes for the population.
Anderson, A. (2014). The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Health Care Workforce. Retrieved May 24, 2017 from http://www.heritage.org/health-care-reform/report/the-impact-the-affordable-care-act-the-health-care-workforce
Goeppel, C., Frenz, P., Grabenhenrich, L., Keil, T., & Tinnemann, P. (2016). Assessment of universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in six middle-income countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 94 (4), 276.
Lasser, K. E., Himmelstein, D. U., & Woolhandler, S. (2006). Access to care, health status, and health disparities in the United States and Canada: results of a cross-national population-based survey. American journal of public health , 96 (7), 1300-1307.
Light, D. W. (2003). Universal health care: lessons from the British experience. American Journal of Public Health , 93 (1), 25-30.
Maimaris, W., Paty, J., Perel, P., Legido-Quigley, H., Balabanova, D., Nieuwlaat, R., & Mckee, M. (2013). The influence of health systems on hypertension awareness, treatment, and control: a systematic literature review. PLoS Med , 10 (7), e1001490.
Parse, R. R. (1999). Illuminations: The human becoming theory in practice and research (Vol. 15, No. 2670). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Pearson, M., Colombo, F., Murakami, Y., & James, C. (2016). Universal Health Coverage and Health Outcomes. Retrieved May 24, 2017 from https://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Universal-Health-Coverage-and-Health-Outcomes-OECD-G7-Health-Ministerial-2016.pdf
Peplau, H. E. (1992). Interpersonal relations: A theoretical framework for application in nursing practice. Nursing science quarterly , 5(1), 13-18.
Rice, T., Unruh, L. Y., Rosenau, P., Barnes, A. J., Saltman, R. B., & van Ginneken, E. (2014). Challenges facing the United States of America in implementing universal coverage. Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 92 (12), 894-902.
Ridic, G., Gleason, S., & Ridic, O. (2012). Comparisons of health care systems in the United States, Germany and Canada. Materia socio-medica , 24 (2), 112.
Schveitzer, M. C., Zoboli, E. L. C. P., & Vieira, M. M. D. S. (2016). Nursing challenges for universal health coverage: a systematic review. Revista latino-americana de enfermagem , 24 .
Taylor, C. (1997). Problem solving in clinical nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(2), 329-336.
Watson, J. (1997). The theory of human caring: retrospective and prospective. Nursing science quarterly , 10(1), 49-52.
Woolhandler, S., Campbell, T., & Himmelstein, D. U. (2003). Costs of health care administration in the United States and Canada. New England Journal of Medicine , 349 (8), 768-775.