6 Dec 2022


Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

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1. Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within healthcare 

Spirituality and ethics are considered as complementary aspects of Christianity as they both are about bringing out the best within a person. The complementarity of these two aspects is evident in healthcare services as everyday experience indicates their usefulness in medical practice. Spirituality should be viewed from a theological perspective as an extension of religion in as much these two do not account for its real source. The reason for this argument is the fact that it is still possible to have a spiritual experience through non-religious avenues such as tourism and music. Moreover, it is essential to understand that spirituality is not necessarily a religious construct considering that not all religions are theocentric. However, spirituality as a philosophical construct is related to ethics as both are aimed at improving patient's health outcomes. According to Igboin (2015), the patient does not care about the means that the nurse or the doctor will use for him or her to get well but instead cares about getting well. The physician has the option of choosing to incorporate spirituality or best ethical practices to improve patients’ outcomes.

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On the other hand, postmodern relativism is a philosophical theory that has found increased attention within the healthcare sector. The approach shifts focus from the physician as the healer or the nurse as the doctors’ handmaiden to the Self or the patient. The patient is considered to have the ability to enhance the healing process as he or she possesses divine healing within. The role of the nurse is the provision of psychosocial, physical, and spiritual care to help the patients to use self-healing techniques to recover health (Ferdinand and Johannes, 2015). These self-healing techniques are about the patients’ ability to direct and exchange spiritual energies and forces that, in turn, lead to better health outcomes. The nursing professionals insist on the fact that patients can heal themselves by taking responsibility for their health. Just like spirituality, postmodern relativism is about exploring one's inner convictions that would lead to improved health.

2. Explain what scientism is and describe two of the main arguments against it 

Scientism is the insistence on the centrality and exclusivity of scientific methodologies, approaches, and techniques as the only way of reaching knowledge and understanding the world. Proponents of scientism advance the perspective that science is the sole objective and best strategy through which a society can use to determine both epistemological and normative values (Peels, 2017). In this way then scientism seems to be all-encompassing in that it not only focuses on areas requiring scientific method but also the ones that need a social sciences approach. The extended use of science in explaining all phenomena is seen as using science in excess even in areas that do not require scientific inquiry. In as much as science is considered as the most potent approach in understanding human its application is question owing to various aspects. First, scientism is becoming a threat not only to other disciplines such as philosophy but also to itself as it undermines the credibility of science. Science should only be applied to inquiries that require objective outcomes through experiments not to social sciences that are relative. By using science to every other question is to weaken and discredit it, as it can no longer provide credible, measurable, and objective findings. A focus on scientism undermines other forms of knowledge and in turn, makes science susceptible to fault as there is no way of verifying or denying its claims (Peels, 2017). The second argument against scientism as the only way of advancing knowledge is that it is highly limited. Opponents of scientism believe that it cannot supply answers for moral and philosophical questions, as these are conceptual as opposed to scientific or empirical. Morality focuses on what humans ought or ought not to do, while scientism can only establish what the moral case is. In this case, then scientism should allow other disciplines to flourish to have a wide array of meaningful knowledge.

Answer each of the worldview questions according to your perspective and worldview: 

a. What is the ultimate reality? 

Reality has different connotations depending on who is being asked or depending on what reality means. Ultimate reality is another form of reality as it depicts what is the absolute reality having focused on other realities. For me, ultimate reality is what I believe to be real or absolute without relying on what others think or perceive to be accurate or factual. This proposition coincides with my religious beliefs, which are prone to disagreements considering that every person has a different take. The ultimate reality for me is that God exists; the world came to be because of Him and that I am here for a reason. In as much as reality seems to focus on what can be seen, touched, and heard, I have faith in these convictions. My definition of ultimate reality is guided by three principles, which is the existence of a personal and loving God who is the origin and destination of all humans. The ultimate reality for me is that there is life after death and that we are not a product of revolution, but instead, our origins are divine. Moreover, the ultimate reality revolves around the fact that three is an eternal principle and truth that governs the world, and it is not scientific

b. What is the nature of the universe? 

The nature of the universe is quite a comprehensive concept as it is not easy to understand its extent, components, origins, destiny or what it exactly means. One is not even sure about where to look to get its meaning or to discover the nature of things. Also, if one is to determine the nature of things, one is not sure if he or she is right about these things. All that one can do is to rely on existing knowledge to understand time and space as it relates to the universe. My understanding of the nature of the universe is that it exists so that humans and all that is in it can survive. I believe that the universe is all-encompassing in that every force or beings complete each other to complete the cycle of the universe. I do not need to understand its origins, destiny, or size to continue enjoying what the universe has to offer. All I have to do is to ensure that I live in perfect harmony with the world to ensure that I do not disrupt the order of things. All I have to do is to understand who I am and how I fit within the universe since I believe that I am part of the universe, whether I am alive or dead.

c. What is a human being? 

The concept of a human being is complex since one has to understand what it means to be human and what the expectations are associated with being human. At this point, one would want to establish if being human is a physical, biological, religious, or scientific concept. As for me, I believe that a human being is a unique and unusual creature that has a great destiny as compared to other animals. Human beings are endowed with a high capacity brain that helps him to make discoveries, harness nature and relate others for better life outcomes. Human beings exist for a reason and the reason is divine as they have to subdue and rule the world and make it a better place. Sadly, human beings have taken their humanity less seriously as they are the cause of the problems they face such as pollution, drought, accidents, and deaths. At this point then, I change my view about human beings as see them as irrational and selfish creatures who can do anything to survive. Human beings could be viewed as helpless creatures who are at the mercy of each other and the universe at large. When they think they are improving their lives, they realize that it ends up being disastrous. As a result, they spend every minute of their lives correcting their mistakes only to make the worse.

d. What is knowledge? 

Knowledge is considered crucial as it helps human beings to survive and thrive in the universe. The definition of knowledge is being aware or familiar with ideas, events, objects, and processes. However, I believe that this definition is misleading as this kind of knowledge is derived from others. We come to be aware of things or events from the experiences of others. This kind of derivative knowledge is as biased as it is has continued to be the basis of knowledge. As for me, I believe that knowledge is what I perceive to be the truth when it comes to objects, ideas, and processes. For instance, I am a firm believer that there is no perfect way of doing things, say bringing up a child, or maintaining a relationship. In spite of there being numerous advisers out there, I believe that one ought to do things his or her way. The most significant knowledge comes from making mistakes and learning from them as opposed to formulas for doing things. In this case, I say that knowledge is relative as an individual who knows how to cook indigenous foods is knowledgeable, like the person who designs aircraft. There are no levels of knowledge since any knowledge helps humans to survive.

e. What is your basis for ethics? 

Ethics, which is associated with morality, focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions as they affect others. There are many bases or ethics out there including utilitarianism, moral relativism, and absolute imperatives. My basis for ethics is utilitarianism in that the rightness or wrongness of an action is dependent on the population that will be affected. If a move will benefit the majority, then it does not matter if it is right or wrong. On the other hand, if a move will hurt the majority, then it should not be encouraged in as much as it will benefit an individual. I tend to believe that the majority of people can be wrong as opposed to a minority. It could be true that an action may be right but if it benefits a few, then it is not worth it. Every person is supposed to think about the consequences of his or her actions to the majority. I am a supporter of the fact that the majority ought to have their way while the minority should have their say. Utilitarianism thrives in almost every sector and I do not see a reason why it should not succeed when it comes to the question of morality.

f. What is the purpose of your existence? 

I exist not because I chose to, but because that was my destiny, and there is nothing I could have done about it. Now that I am here, I believe that I exist for a reason and the reason is divine. My purpose for existing is to leave behind a mark so that even when I am gone, people will look back and say someone lived I may not do much to deserve a place in history books but I will inevitably touch a few lives. I will make sure that I will do all I can to help change a person’s life whereas an individual or as a professional. Whatever my hands will find to do, I will do with a passion not as if doing it for myself but like unto God. Whenever I see a chance to help, I will gladly do it since I believe that to be my purpose. I would not want God to regret placing in the universe for such a time having lived an unproductive life. Instead, I want to live each day the best way I can ensure that I have good relationships with everyone I meet. I cannot afford to live a bitter life considering that I have only one chance to live.


Ani, N. C. (2016). Does scientism undermine other forms of knowledge?. Verbum Eccles .37(1), 1-9.

Ferdinand, P., & Johannes, V. W. (2015). Postmodern relativism and the challenge to overcome the “value-vacuum.” Stellenbosch Theological Journal , 1(1), 235–254.

Igboin, B. O. (2015). Spirituality and medical practice: a Christian perspective. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 12(4), 199-206.

Peels, R. (2017). The Fundamental Argument against Scientism. In M. Boudry, & M. Pigliucci (Eds.), Science Unlimited?: The Challenges of Scientism. Chicago, IL :University of Chicago Press.

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 15). Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory.


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