12 Jan 2023


Acute Coronary Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

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Acute coronary syndrome is one of the world’s deadliest diseases. It frequently occurs when the supply of blood to the heart is blocked majorly as a result of the instability of atherosclerotic plaque.The disease is rampant in the society today. Recently conducted study in the United States show that the acute coronary syndrome occurs in the span of about 25 seconds. This is due to many health risk factors some of which are old age and smoking. This disease, however, is reported to be in the reduction path over the last few years.

Canadian Epidemiological Study 

Method: The Canadian Institute of Health Information recently released sample database of the trends of the acute coronary syndrome. A total of 1.3 million people suffering from acute coronary syndrome were examined between the year of 1994 to 2006. The examination process was based on stratified age groups and sex for observation purposes.

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Results: It was found out that out of 100,000 persons in the year 1994, 508 people were suffering from the syndrome. In the year 2005, study shows that 317 people out of 100,000 persons suffered the same illness. In essence, this was a massive reduction in the controlling and management of the disease. Statistically, this shows a relative decrease of about 37.8%. In the study, a decline of the disease was observant magnificently reducing in males than it was in the female. Moreover, across different age groups, there was a noticeable reduction in the disease infection.

Interpretation: In the past decade, there has been a significant decrease in the illness of the acute coronary syndrome. This is majorly due to the primary and secondary prevention and management of coronary heart attack. Therefore, an acute ischemic condition is the mainly appropriate illness used currently in the description of the coronary heart disease.

United States

According to Hampton (2014), the disease is very rampant in the United States such that on frequency scale, about every minute there is a report incidence of the acute coronary syndrome. Statistically, 1.4 million cases of the disease syndrome are reported annually (Hampton, 2014). 75% of death occurs due to plaque rupture and the other quarter is due to superficial endothelium erosion.

The rate at which the disease with acute coronary syndrome is spreading has been reducing of late in particular among those people with acute coronary syndrome with STEMI. (Hampton 2014). It was found out that the cause of the reduction in this disease is majorly due to the decrease in smoking, population aging, and strain usage.

Similarly, this trend is replicated in the cardiac arrest. NSTEMI, which is a dominant type of the syndrome, is more damaging to the body’s defense system as compared to the STEMI type of acute coronary syndrome. NSTEMI type of acute coronary syndrome frequently occurs when a clot partially prevents the flow of blood in the coronary artery. On the other hand, STEMI type of acute coronary syndrome commonly occurs when a clot blocks blood flow to the coronary artery entirely.

Risk Factors 

The risk dynamics for this syndrome consist of old-age, earlier atheromatous cardiovascular heart attack, diabetes- both Mellitus and insipidus, smoking, male sex, hypercholesterolemia and history of fast ischemic heart attack. According to Hampton (2014), this type of illness may also occur along with arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies, and vulvar disease.


In the United States, between 9% and 19% of acute coronary disease syndrome patients die within the first half a year of diagnosis with about half of the mortality occurring in a month. However, this number has been reducing recently. Credit goes to the better in-hospital management of the patients with this type of illness. There increased campaigns on the prevention and the awareness of this disease have drastically helped in its spread and reduction. As a result of the management and prevention of acute coronary syndromes, the coronary heart disease has been on the upscale due to increased life expectancy and survival rates of people with this illness. Consequently, morbidity and mortality rates have made this syndrome remain significant.

In as much as there is a decrease in the syndrome in older people, they are barely noticeable observation in the younger people. According to Fox(2014), this is due to the risk factors such as diabetes and obesity. Certain characteristics of individuals can potentially pose a threat in regards to this type of illness. According to National Registry of Myocardial Infarction(2014), African-American women are reported with this sort of disease as compared to white women. Other factors are socio-economic, and it includes interaction with the diet, smoking cessation efforts, exercises, and medical management.

Prevention of acute phase of this syndrome has become the world’s most challenging task. Reportedly, most people die of this syndrome within five years of the attack. To curb this situation, we need to appreciate and identify that makers and other genetic factors will consent to us know the risk of further events.


Dennis, T., Newman, A., Alter, D. (2010). Canadian cardiovascular outcomes research teams: Secular trends in acute coronary syndrome hospitalization. Can J Cardiol 2010, 26(3), 129-134.

Hampton, T. (2014). Epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome: Current patterns, causes and effects. Retrieved from www.medpagetoday.com/resource-centre/moving -forward-after-ACS/epidemiology/a/44449 

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 14). Acute Coronary Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment.


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