30 Mar 2022


Affects of Neglect on School Readiness

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Academic level: College

Paper type: Term Paper

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The Concept of School Readiness

School readiness is can be interpreted in two perspectives and three paradigms. The two characteristics are achieving experiences and transition. The dimensions include families’ and communities’ readiness for school, child’s readiness for school and schools’ readiness for children. The willingness of Children can be looked from the view if their ability to learn and development. Secondly, schools’ readiness focuses on the academic environment, schools’ practices that enable a smooth transition of children; from home to school. The third dimension, families’ readiness, focuses on the parental attitudes and their participation in the children’s early development and schools’ transition. It is also right to say that children are born ready to learn and begin learning through interactions with the environment and daily experiences (Britto, 2012).

The first five years of child development are crucial for laying the child’s foundation. The first five years depicts a child’s growth and vulnerability. There are many problems and benefits that a child can attain during his or her first five years of interaction, both of which impact on his or her future. Similarly, adverse early encounters can impair the mental health of the children and in return affect their behavior, socio-emotional and cognitive development ( Chantelle et al. , 2007).

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Measuring school readiness is a complex task this is because different areas use differing standards. For example, in Maryland kindergarten teachers assess children’s learning needs and progress using the Maryland Model for School Readiness (MMSR). There is also the (COR) Child Observation Record, which measures the children’s cognitive and non-cognitive areas (Onondaga Citizens League, 2013). Through using various measuring criteria, teachers have been able to assess various early childhood development and education. The definition of school readiness and transition refers to the ease of children moving from home environments into learning environments as well as parents and guardians getting acquainted with the socio-cultural system such as education. Also, one should take into consideration the schools’ ability to admit new children into the system (Obradovic, Bush, Stamperdahl, Adler & Boyce, 2010). 

Therefore, children, families and schools have an important interrelationship that is vital to the kid’s readiness regarding school. Clearly, the definition of school readiness has acknowledged that the child, family and school have equal weight in the child’s development ( Chantelle et al. , 2007). It, therefore, means that the requirement for better school familiarity needs non- academic competencies that do play essential roles for children’s school readiness

Children Readiness for Schools

Child neglect can be devastating to a child’s readiness for school. This is with respect to non- academic competencies like, numeracy, literacy, capacity to adhere to the guidelines, collaborating with other kids and participating in learning events. Child neglects also derail a child’s capacity to adapt easily to new situations and environments, and resolve problematic issues amicably whenever they arise. Therefore, it is evident that neglected children are deprived of these basic and fundamental developmental gifts. Consequently, child neglect has been associated with negative behaviors such as delinquency and poor academic performance ( Lewis et al. (2007) . Maltreated children are adversely affected, in that they show poor resolution of essential tasks in their early development. Ultimately, it impacts on their school entry and future well-being. One of the primary developmental competencies that should develop during infancy is cognitive performance. Cognitive skills are the individual, predicting skills of the child’s future and present school achievement ( Chantelle et al. , 2007). It is evident that neglected children perform poorly at school than non-maltreated children. Aspects of the emotional and social perspective comprise emotional regulation, social relationships, and social cognition..

Families’ Readiness for School

Before any child goes to school, first, the child encounters the family-child interaction which is the most primary and vital for the development of the child. Family in the real context is an institution that is a co-residing unit that stays with young children. The family can be biological or non-biological.; Siblings, parents, guardians and even foster parents. When referring to school readiness and families’ readiness for school, the main areas under research are attitudes, parenting skills, and knowledge (Obradovic, Bush, Stamperdahl, Adler & Boyce, 2010). Friendly home environments, good home care, and supportive parenting are evidently strongest evaluators of school performance during elementary, primary school and even tertiary education. Therefore, the care from antenatal visits, through breastfeeding and early for infants is an indication for good parenting. Child- parent interactions are important not to undermine the child's intellectual or verbal skills (UNESCO, 2006). 

On the other hand, poverty is a co- factor that deprives children that special and warm care of the parents, and as a result, some of the children may be neglected. Poverty damages the potential family interaction that would enable their kids to have good school performance. Effects of poverty are influential on the emotional and development of the child. There are many instances of children from poor backgrounds enrolling late for school than their counterparts who come from well-off families (Lewis et al. (2007) . Situations like these have made many children, poor feel sad and in return show poor performance, and even sometimes they drop out of school ( Lewis et al. 2007). B esides, poverty can dampen school readiness as parents are not physically and emotionally available to see their children develop. 

Similarly, Families’ readiness for school implies that it can only be understood in cultural and socioeconomic basis. In areas with high levels of poverty, parental skills and values are different from those that are well endowed financially. Homesteads that are poor may opt not to take their children to school in fear of higher living cost imposed on them. On the other hand, wealthy or middle-class individuals embrace the thought of taking their kids to school as a future investment. Parents spend most of their time on trying to provide the basic needs; shelter, food and clothing leaving education out of the picture. Similarly, high-poverty neighborhoods undermine the children’s ability to concentrate in school and required development ( UNESCO, 2006) . It is because of the presence of high crime, limited housing, less access to resources and small capital which include schools. As a result, this has made children living in poor areas to have little adaptive effects and neglect which are attributed to poverty (Barett, 2013) .The 

The development of stronger family relationships and community, in general, is important for well- being of the child. Secondly, poverty being a major cause for child neglect and a contributor of low performance, the state, and county should expand funding to schools and create jobs (Obradovic, Bush, Stamperdahl, Adler & Boyce, 2010). 

Schools’ Readiness for Children

The last dimension of the school readiness model is school readiness for children. Schools’ readiness refers to schools’ surroundings that allow a smooth transition for children from home to school. As much as most early childhood education differs in teaching style and structure around the world. It is essential that the void between early babyhood care and teaching system be slim. The larger the difference, the greater the transition period for young children to move from pre-primary education to primary school setting (UNESCO, 2007). According to UNICEF, child-friendly schools must strive to promote teacher-students relationship for the development of emotional, physical and intellectual competencies (UNICEF, 2009). The teacher-child relationship is noted as vital if it is responsible, mutually respectful and considerate. Schools that are friendly and child centered make the children competent in schools. Moreover, teachers and school managers are among the most crucial components in building effective schools and ensuring school readiness because children depend on adults. Besides teaching staff’ qualifications are linked to overall classroom performance. 

Schools’ environment is the overall determinant of the number of dropouts from primary schools. Also, quality as well is defined by the school environment, adequate supply of learning tools such as books and efficient teaching. Better structured classrooms reflect positive results which make the want engage in education more often. On the other hand, in remote areas where the majority of the class structures made poorly, there are scores of school drop-out. In the same context, poor teaching skills and inadequate learning facilities are associated with a low number of children enrolling in schools (UNESCO, 2006). Schools’ readiness for children focuses on the quality of education and teacher practices that support children’s smooth transition from families and home to school environment

Conclusion and Discussion 

Quality education can be seen as the gap between the home culture and school cultures. Children who speak a different language from that taught in the school experience a hectic transition to school. Therefore, there is a significant need for the provision of a homogeneous medium of instruction from home to the schools for easy transition of children from home to school. According to UNICEF (2009), it is essential for children to be provided in a serene and healthy learning environment which is safe, secure and has the required resources for the provision of high- quality education.

According to a report compiled by the Onondaga Citizens League (2013), several things are core to school readiness as well as things that undermine school readiness. On the downside, neglect has received the most attention concerning the main issue that undermines school readiness. It is advisable that governments should stress the development of social unity and welfare to eliminate child neglect. . 

School readiness revolves around schools, families and children as they amass the necessary experiences for an easy changeover and interaction with the other paradigms. School readiness, benefits children at each stage; in primary school, school readiness reduces dropout rates and increasing academic engagement. Secondary education betters academic performance and increases rates of graduation ( Chantelle et al. , 2007). Thirdly, in adulthood, school readiness improves employment and income levels. Lastly, families’ readiness of schools encompasses attitudes, practices and parental ways from birth to adolescence. Families’ readiness for school, therefore, implies that it can only be understood in cultural and socioeconomic basis. 

An effect of neglect on school readiness examines the processes that connect child neglect to successful school outcomes and entry. The difference between neglected and non-neglect children show that neglected children were victims of poverty and its complementary factors (crime, poor housing). Also, the connection between early neglect and late school entry may develop through cognitive performance and general behavior of the child (Lewis et al. 2007). A further recommendation is that school readiness improvement models in all countries should use measures that indicate reliability, predictive validity and build validity in terms of their acceptability by different people. Lastly, School readiness measuring standards should uphold ethnic codes that uphold integrity.


Barett, S. (2013 ). Early Childhood and School Readiness: Creating a Community Where All Children. Retrieved from http://onondagacitizensleague.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/OCL-2013-final-copy-for-web.pdf

Britto, P. R. (2012). School Readiness and Transition. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/CFS_School_Readiness_E_web.pdf

Chantelle J. Et al. (2007). School readiness and later achievement .Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.6.1428

Lewis et al. (2007) Development Psychology. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.6.1415  

Obradovic, J. Bush, N, R. Stamperdahl, J. Adler, N, E & Boyce, T, M. (2010). Biological Sensitivity to Context: The Interactive Effects of Stress Reactivity and Family Adversity on Socioemotional Behavior and School Readiness. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01394.x/abstract;jsessionid=F8E4C2FE5224BE1E5F7F3BC1D6250C26.f04t04?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage

Onondaga Citizen League. (2013). Early Childhood and School Readiness: Creating a Community Where all Children Thrive by Five. Retrieved from http://onondagacitizensleague.org/blog/studies/study-archive/early-childhood-education/2013-study-resources/

United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF). (2009) State of the World Children Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/sowc09/

United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organizatiom (UNESCO). (2007). Strong Foundations: Early childhood care and education. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/education/GMR/2007/Full_report.pdf

United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organizatiom (UNESCO). (2006) Guidelines on Intercultural Education. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001478/147878e.pdf

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