The issue of domestic violence is a growing concern in the present society. Women serve as the key victims of domestic violence, although men and children also feel the devastating effects as well. When couples are involved in domestic violence, instant injuries emerge, particularly since it involves assault and other forms of physical abuse. Since women are the key victims, the experiences that they go through are usually intense while the key issues that they experience revolve around chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders, and eating problems while at the same time portraying psychosomatic symptoms. These mostly result from the distress that they encounter due to the abuse (Wong & Mellor, 2014) . For the psychological abuse that victims of domestic abuse experience, they are less intense unlike the case of physical abuse. The physical abuse that the victims experience subjects them to various forms of injuries, which might at times be fatal. As such, the major area of concern on matters related to domestic violence usually emanates from the physical abuse that the victims encounter (Wendt, Buchanan, & Moulding, 2015) . Nevertheless, it is essential to note that various healthcare advocates together with providers in diverse parts of the word are noting that domestic violence also results to diverse mental health effects. These effects consist of anxiety, post-traumatic disorders, and depression (Katz, 2016) . The trauma that the victims face might also lead them to embark on substance abuse in an effort to allow them to cope with the negative effects that they face from the trauma. Hence, the domestic violence deserves considerable attention in today’s society due to the negative influences that it poses to the victims, particularly women and children (Jaquier & Sullivan, 2014) . In this sense, d omestic violence is an issue that has tremendous effects, especially toward women, although it also has implications toward children, family, friends, colleagues, and the society.
Regarding the issue of domestic violence, women serve as the most vulnerable during the course of their lives. Pregnancy serves as a period in women’s lives when they serve as most vulnerable to while it is understood that domestic violence usually escalates during this period (Gregory, Williamson, & Feder, 2017) . In the event of women experiencing abuse, around 35 percent of them realize a rise in abuse cases when pregnant as well as after the natal period resulting to growing cases of anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. For the women aged more than 50 years who serve as domestic violence victims, they also serve as vulnerable groups while they might suffer in silence since the society usually ignores the problem (Francis, Loxton, & James, 2017) . For these older groups, they encounter serious hindrances when accessing support services. They also receive limited services when they manage to get access to the service system. Psychological abuse has the major influence toward the lives of older women since it destroys their self-efficacy, self-confidence, and coping capabilities (Wendt, Buchanan, & Moulding, 2015) . Here, it is essential to look at the manner in which domestic violence influences the victims to have understanding of the seriousness of the matter.
Delegate your assignment to our experts and they will do the rest.
Adolescents and children also experience major vulnerabilities to domestic violence. In the event of the U.K., for instance, estimates reveal that around million kids have served as victims to domestic violence. However, irrespective of these statistics, public agencies have remained reluctant to appreciate the existence of domestic violence (Wathen, MacGregor, & MacQuarrie, 2018) . This serves as an indicator of the need for assessing the needs of children when it comes to accessing protecting and support in case they reside in similar households with the victims. Studies also reveal that between 55 and 90 percent of cases of domestic violence usually prevail when the kids are young and present (Yount, et al., 2014) . T his violence has severe and negative repercussions on their immediate life in line with their life long wellbeing and health.
Various studies reveal that the kids involved in domestic violence face severe traumatic experiences and increased cases of anxiety, depression, and reduced self-esteem. They also portray developmental delay and behavioral challenges. Child abuse and neglect as well as domestic violence are interlinked (Yount, et al., 2014) . Domestic violence becomes worse when child abuse/domestic violence is affiliated with mortality of kids aged below five years as well as infants during their initial year of life. Globally, domestic violence serves as a severe criminal, public safety, and human rights challenge affiliated with severe repercussions in the society and families (Hughes, Bolis, Fries, & Finigan, 2015) . Recently, it has been regarded as an issue that should not remain private or between individuals in their households. This kind of violence results to a major public health problem while the children who grow up in such families end up being detrimental to the entire society (Abraham & Tastsoglou, 2016) . In this sense, the figures attributed to incidences of domestic violence reveal that i t is crucial to devise effective ways of dealing with this catastrophic problem.
Domestic violence normally imposes significant costs toward the society in general. In the event of the U.S. society, estimates reveal that the annual costs attributed to domestic violence in line with catering for the women subjected to battering is around $1.8 billion (Wendt, Buchanan, & Moulding, 2015) . These costs mostly result from costs of delivering healthcare to women and other victims who have suffered injuries due to assault cases associated with domestic violence. The victims might also find it important to seek counselling services, which also require them to pay in order to receive care (Wang, 2016) . Aside from the direct costs attributed to domestic violence, it is crucial to realize that the act results to other indirect costs in the society. In the case of Canada, for instance, approximately 30 percent of women who are victims of domestic violence face hindrances in undertaking their daily routines. This is due to the injuries and trauma that they experience (Gregory, Williamson, & Feder, 2017) . Furthermore, studies reveal that around 50 percent of women require seek leave from their places of work because of the injuries that they suffer from battering. Furthermore, studies carried out in Nicaragua depict that even after the imposition of regulations other factors might affect the earnings of women. For instance, the estimates reveal that abused women usually earn 46 percent less as opposed to those who do not experience abuse (Wathen, MacGregor, & MacQuarrie, 2018) . In the event of Santiago and Chile, estimates reveal that women experiencing physical violence usually earn less than half of the income than women who do not face violence (Francis, Loxton, & James, 2017) . In this perspective, therefore, it is essential to note that the costs that the community experiences mostly affect women. They mostly suffer when it reduced earnings due to lost time at work and the fees that they pay to healthcare organizations and counselling services while seeking assistance for the trauma and injuries that they experience due to violence.
Domestic violence might be fatal to the victims. According to certain researchers, a number of partners usually murder women intentionally when they face domestic issues. The women usually lose their lives mostly due to the severe injuries that they experience due to battering (Jaquier & Sullivan, 2014) . Recent studies carried out in the U.S. focus on strangulation and choking as the tactic that a large number of perpetrators utilize when they are involved in domestic violence. For these kinds of acts, they usually to not leave marks on the victims making the tactics the favorite methods that the perpetrators use (Yount, et al., 2014) . In this perspective, the police as well as other investigators might fail to note that the victims require medical assistance. They might also lack understanding concerning the seriousness of the violence (Hughes, Bolis, Fries, & Finigan, 2015) . The injuries resulting from choking or strangulation are usually deadly to the victims. In this case, it is essential to realize that the injuries might seem mild initially although severe on the side of the victims. For these kinds of acts, they might lead the victims to die within a period of 36 hours (Abraham & Tastsoglou, 2016) . When it comes to domestic violence, therefore, it is evident that it is quite costly on the side of the victims, particularly when such acts subject them to death, mostly due to strangulation or chocking, which might not be possible to identify among the victims.
For the victims of domestic abuse, their chances of committing suicide are considerable high, especially women due to the emotional trauma that they face. Here, it is important to realize that apart from death that results from injury, the women experiencing incidences of domestic abuse have increased chances of committing suicide (Wathen, MacGregor, & MacQuarrie, 2018) . Various studies reveal that around 29 percent of women experiencing domestic abuse within the U.S. have higher chances of resulting to suicide to allow them to escape abusive relationships. Experts stipulate that a close connection exists between domestic violence and suicide particularly among women. This is evident in various investigations undertaken within the U.S., Fiji, Papua New Guinea, India, Sri Lanka, Peru, and Bangladesh (Jaquier & Sullivan, 2014) . Additionally, various studies reveal that women experiencing abuse are 12 times more likely to result to suicide unlike the case of those not facing domestic abuse (Abraham & Tastsoglou, 2016) . In this vein, the close link that exists between suicide and domestic violence reveals the severity of domestic abuse cases, which leads persons to result to suicide with the goal of escaping the traumatic experiences that result from domestic abuse (Yount, et al., 2014) . As such, it is essential to consider addressing the abuse cases while devising means of assisting the victims to cope with such traumatic experiences , which lead them to lose hope in life.
Domestic violence is also associated with secondary effects toward the victims. For example, the victims have higher chances of failing to undertake their daily routines in the expected manner (Abraham & Tastsoglou, 2016) . Violence at homes subjects the victims to physical and mental trauma. Researchers reveal that victims of domestic violence have higher chances failing to attend work on a regular basis because of the visits that they make to healthcare organizations seeking treatment for the physical and mental issues that they experience from domestic violence cases that they go through (Wathen, MacGregor, & MacQuarrie, 2018) . For the individuals suffering from cases of domestic violence, they often portray feelings of shame, embarrassment, and humiliation, especially when battering imposes marks of them. In this vein, the victims end up distancing themselves from their friends and family members while at the same time refraining from attending to their places of work (Yount, et al., 2014) . Owing to the growing cases of substance abuse and absenteeism from workplaces, the battered women face challenges when it comes to securing stable employment. When the victims wish to avoid domestic violence, they might end up leaning their places, of work, homes, as well as their belonging (Abraham & Tastsoglou, 2016) . Other effects attributed to domestic violence become apparent among children, friends, family, coworkers, and the community. Furthermore, the abusers might end up targeting family members and friends of the victims in retaliation for helping the victims to abandon the violent relationships or while offering them help to cope with the emotional and physical trauma (Gregory, Williamson, & Feder, 2017) . In this vein, it is vital to take note of the seriousness associated with domestic violence and the devastating effects it has toward the victims.
The children at home usually face the effects associated with domestic violence. For the kids involved in violent relationships, they might serve as witnesses, face the violence, and encounter harm when couples are in disagreements. Having sufficient understanding of the effects that domestic violence poses toward children especially the connection that exists between a spouse and a child is significantly important (Hughes, Bolis, Fries, & Finigan, 2015) . This form of comprehension would play a critical role in allowing the community to intervene in anticipation for responding to the violence tha t prevails in homes. Absence of this kind of foundation would lead the initiatives established to help kids to have negative as well as unexpected outcomes among battered women (Wang, 2016) . In addition, the programs might end up being ineffective when it comes to helping children in coping with as well as recovering from witnessing or experiencing abuse (Gregory, Williamson, & Feder, 2017) . In this case, it essential to of the negative influences associated with domestic abuse toward children to facilitate in coming up with effective means of dealing with such issues before they result to catastrophic impacts to children.
In the event of the children residing in homes that feature violence, the cycle of violence is likely to emerge. The major predictor of kids growing up to serve as domestic abuse victims or perpetrators results from growing up in a home that has abuse (Hughes, Bolis, Fries, & Finigan, 2015) . When the kids witness abuse, they learn potentially destructive and powerful lessons concerning the utilization of violence in order to maintain control and power. Numerous studies reveal that in households characterized by intimate violence, an average of around 40 percent of kids serve as abuse victims (Wang, 2016) . The children might react in a different manner to the violence based on their sex, age, extent, and frequency of violence together with the forms of role models surrounding them. When the children grow up in a home having domestic violence, their developmental progress is affected significantly. Whereas it is probable to remove the kids from abusive situations, the result of residing in home with abuse and violence can have unending effects throughout the lives of the children (Francis, Loxton, & James, 2017) . Additionally, research has revealed that homes featuring intense physical abuse subject the sons to increased threats of child abuse as opposed to the case of girls. In this manner, it is vital to have understanding of the severe effects that domestic violence has toward children, particularly their developmental progress together with their chances of serving as victims or perpetrators of domestic violence in the futur e (Wathen, MacGregor, & MacQuarrie, 2018) . This way, it would be probable to address the issue before it gets out of hand.
The issue of domestic violence usually leads women to face other forms of violence against women. For instance, a research by the Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights in Moldova and Ukraine focused on the rising cases of domestic violence. For the research, it stipulated that domestic violence could result to increased vulnerability of women to issues, such as trafficking (Francis, Loxton, & James, 2017) . For the women who face incidences of domestic violence, their chances of accepting risky jobs in overseas markets increase. In this manner, the women face opportunities subjecting them to additional abuse mostly because they are led to engage in acts, such as prostitution. Others are used to facilitate in illegal drug trades, which pose numerous threats to the victims owing to the riskiness associated with that kind of business (Wathen, MacGregor, & MacQuarrie, 2018) . In this perspective, therefore, subjecting women to domestic violence leads them to face other threats, which might be fatal or pose various threats to their overall wellbeing.
In conclusion, the issue of domestic violence poses debilitating effects especially toward women who are mostly the ones that serve as the victims. The catastrophic effects that they experience are traumatic to an extent that they face emotional and physical suffering. Furthermore, the kids in abusive marriages also face challenges as well as violence for being in that kind of a relationship. Domestic violence also hurts other individuals including friends, the community, coworkers, as well as other family members. In this perspective, it is essential to realize that domestic violence serves as an issue that deserves considerable emphasis owing to its catastrophic effects toward the victims in line with other individuals who might be involved in the acts, whether directly or indirectly. As such, domestic violence needs to be accorded tremendous emphasis owing to its intense costs toward the community, family members, friends, coworkers, children, and other involved parties.
Abraham, M., & Tastsoglou, E. (2016). Addressing domestic violence in Canada and the United States: The uneasy co-habitation of women and the state. Current Sociology, 64 (4), 568-585.
Francis, L., Loxton, D., & James, C. (2017). The culture of pretence: a hidden barrier to recognising, disclosing and ending domestic violence. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25 (15-16), 2202-2214.
Gregory, A. C., Williamson, E., & Feder, G. (2017). The impact on informal supporters of domestic violence survivors: A systematic literature review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18 (5), 562-580.
Hughes, C., Bolis, M., Fries, R., & Finigan, S. (2015). Women's economic inequality and domestic violence: exploring the links and empowering women. Gender & Development, 23 (2), 279-297.
Jaquier, V., & Sullivan, T. P. (2014). Fear of past abusive partner (s) impacts current posttraumatic stress among women experiencing partner violence. Violence Against Women, 20 (2), 208-227.
Katz, E. (2016). Beyond the physical incident model: How children living with domestic violence are harmed by and resist regimes of coercive control. Child Abuse Review, 25 (1), 46-59.
Wang, L. (2016). Factors influencing attitude toward intimate partner violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 29 , 72-78.
Wathen, C. N., MacGregor, J. C., & MacQuarrie, B. J. (2018). Relationships among intimate partner violence, work, and health. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33 (14), 2268-2290.
Wendt, S., Buchanan, F., & Moulding, N. (2015). Mothering and domestic violence: Situating maternal protectiveness in gender. Affilia, 30 (4), 533-545.
Wong, J., & Mellor, D. (2014). Intimate partner violence and women’s health and wellbeing: Impacts, risk factors and responses. Contemporary Nurse, 46 (2), 170-179.
Yount, K. M., VanderEnde, K., Zureick-Brown, S., Minh, T. H., Schuler, S. R., & Anh, H. T. (2014). Measuring attitudes about women’s recourse after exposure to intimate partner violence: The ATT-RECOURSE scale. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29 (9), 1579-1605.