The in-text citations are placed at the end of the sentence after the complete analysis of the desired point. The citations relate to the content by being direction lines to where the information came from in case of the need to expound on the given elucidation of the author’s work as well as acts as guidelines for the work cited page. For example, in the journal Treatment of PTSD and Substance Abuse Comorbidity by Theresa Souza and Richard Spates, the in-text citations are quoted at the end of every sentence after the intense explanation, such as in page 11 “Approximately 50% of individuals in inpatient substance abuse treatment centers will also meet criteria for comorbid PTSD (Brown et al., 1999)” and “Furthermore, these substances appear to be related to the specific symptoms pattern exhibited by the individual (Stewart, Conrod, Pihl & Dongier, 1999).”
The author-date in-text citation has taken different forms depending on the emphasis the author was trying to create. However, the basic method that has been used to cite the references is the typical parenthetical reference that consists of the author’s last name followed by the publication date and they are separated by a comma such as in page 13 “The subject, emotional experience of the individual in the aftermath of the trauma must also be taken into account (APA, 2000).” However, in other cases, the author’s name is in running text and the date in parenthesis such as in page 12 “Lastly, the DSMIV-TR (2002) states that symptoms must occur for a minimum of one month and cause clinically significant distress and impairment in several areas of functioning.” When the ‘and’ is inside the parenthesis, it is written as an ampersand (&) but retains the word and outside the parenthesis. A direct quoted page however requires the inclusion of the page number.
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Theresa, Souza. & Richard, Spates. (2008). Treatment of PTSD and substance abuse comorbidity. The Behavior Analyst Today, Vol. 9 (5), 11-13.