15 Aug 2022


Case Study in Multicultural Human Services

Format: APA

Academic level: Master’s

Paper type: Case Study

Words: 1105

Pages: 4

Downloads: 0

Personal Information 

Janet’s case points to a myriad of issuers in her personal life. Although the information provided in the briefcase study does not offer all the relevant facts to help her take a positive turn in her life, it is clear that Janet struggles with addition problems, personal relationships and past trauma since she was a teenager. Thus, in the first counseling session it is prudent to obtain personal information from Janet regarding her family history, past trauma that was not revealed in the case, the underlying cause for failed marriages, the perception of the situation she is in and fears that she harbors. As revealed by Nam et al. (2013), individual who conceal personal information tend to have less positive outcomes from the counseling session. Implying that the counselor utilizes this personal information to develop a plan that best suits the client needs. 

Importantly, background information on her family is vital in assessing the relationship between Janet’s current situation and her past. Additionally, her failed marriages may have a bearing on her alcohol and drug addiction issues. Therefore, obtaining as much information as possible about her relationship background will assist in wiring the proceeding sessions to help with the recovery process. Tentatively, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model could apply to Janet’s situation since she had a difficult childhood because her parents were alcoholics hence she did not receive the fair amount of love that she required. 

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Personal Biases and Limitations 

Beliefs and values held by a counselor can inadvertently derail the counseling processes leading to poor or undesirable outcomes for the client. Therefore, identifying this biases through the personal information obtained from the client, in this case, will determine the success of the counseling process. For instance, deeply held religious views towards divorce may affect the outcome of the counseling process in Janet. Additionally, limitations in knowledge when dealing with cases of past trauma is also undesirable in Janet’s case. However, from the information provided in Janet’s case, it is unlikely that any of her situations or experiences will pose problems. Hence, the decision to proceed with the sessions together with her. 


Goals in counseling provide important goals that can be used to measure the progress of the client after a certain number of sessions or upon completion of the whole process. Setting ambitious and achievable goals is vital in aiding the client to achieve positive changes in her life. Existing research points out the problem of system approach and its contribution to creating addicts (Moore & Fraser, 2013). Hence the set goals will deviate from the system expected methods but rather use strategies that are suitable to the client's situations. In light of that, the goals will be a collaborative structure with the client such that her views and perceptions will have a significant bearing on the nature of the set goals. 

Key goals for the client will involve finding an activity or sport that will keep her mind from the stress related to trauma. This activity will also help to keep her away from alcohol or drugs is she undergoes therapy. Other goals will include the change of schedule to ensure that she spends as much time as possible with her children to create emotional attachment. These goals not only distract Janet's mind from staying idle and engaging in alcohol and drugs, but they also provide emotional and physical healing due to her situation. In the event that the client is uncomfortable with one or several of the set goal, a consultative approach is appropriate. It will involve assessing the options available and agreeing with the client on the best alternative goal that will serve the intended purpose of the counseling plan. 

In case only a single goal is allowed, the goal that suits the needs of the client while at the same time stays in line with the counseling plan will be formulated. For example, creating a lifestyle change at the end of the counseling sessions through, body, spiritual and psychological healing. This goal offers benefits in all the three areas that Janet requires healing. Furthermore, it is inclusive of the stepwise recovery process inherent with counseling of alcohol and drug addicts. 

Theoretical Approach 

The Character Logical Model is well suited for Janet’s case. Janet's addiction problem transcends the physical urge to drink case; she suffers from past trauma and inefficiencies due to her teenage years and stress due to her failed relationships. This model explains that physical or biological urges do not explicitly cause addiction, but psychological factors have a role, and everyone is vulnerable (See, 2013). Character defects brought about by past experiences combines with learned behavior to bring about addiction. This model allows for a theoretical understanding of the client's condition before embarking on corrective action. A counselors understanding of the theoretical background of the client's condition helps in the formulation of a counseling plan and guides that produce positive outcomes for the client within the minimal time. Furthermore, it allows an exhaustive approach to the problem hence leaving the patient less vulnerable to situations that might lead them to fall back. 

Therapeutic Techniques 

Dialectical behavioral therapy will be applied in Janet’s case. This therapy focuses on four core areas of tolerance to stress, interpersonal relationships, regulation of emotion and mindfulness techniques (Hayes, 2016). Although the technique was initially developed for suicidal people who had problems maintaining relationships or communicating with others, it can be adapted to correct cases such as Janet’s addiction and trauma. Janet is stressed and also suffered trauma from a sexual assault in her teenage years. This technique will help her cope with emotions and enable her to hold relationships with those close to her. Mindfulness, on the other hand, helps in dealing with addiction issues that affect Janet. The procedural nature of this therapy requires several sessions to achieve a positive result. Consequently, twelve sessions running for six months will be scheduled for the patient. 

Although this therapy technique is effective when applied independently, psycho-education can enhance the healing process. Psycho-education enhances the healing process through encouraging communication and teaching problem-solving skills which might as well be beneficial for the healing process. 

Measurement of Progress and Success 

Key milestones in the patient's recovery process will be measured by the goals set at the beginning of the process. These goals outline the positive changes in the client's lifestyle as a measure of progress. Another measure of progress is the change in perception about conditions that affect her life. This will be assessed through the counseling sessions where questions about her psychological state will be administered. However, the overall success of the process will be determined at the end of the six months program. The client’s return to a healthy mental, a physical and psychological state free from addiction will rank the program a success. 


Although the program may successfully help the client to stay free from drugs and also restore healthy psychological well-being, the long-term results of the process rely on the patient's determination. The emergence of other factors that may trigger a fallback is not rare. Therefore the counseling process will seek to prepare the client for such eventualities. 


Hayes, S. C. (2016). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavioral and cognitive therapies–republished article.  Behavior therapy 47 (6), 869-885. 

Moore, D., & Fraser, S. (2013). Producing the “problem” of addiction in drug treatment.  Qualitative Health Research 23 (7), 916-923. 

Nam, S. K., Choi, S. I., Lee, J. H., Lee, M. K., Kim, A. R., & Lee, S. M. (2013). Psychological factors in college students' attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help: A meta-analysis.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 44 (1), 37-49. 

See, N. J. (2013).Models and theories of addiction and the rehabilitation counselor. Research Papers. Paper 478 . Retrieved from http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/gs_rp/478 

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