23 Aug 2022


Comparative Religious Matrix

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Academic level: College

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Part 1  

Buddhism  Christianity   Hinduism   Islam   Judaism  
Essential Components 
Origin and Founding date    India – 500 BC    Egypt-Rome – 32 AD    India 1500 BC    Arabia 622 AD  Israel-Egypt – 586 BC  
Fundamental Belief 

  Elimination of worldly Passions 


Confessions and repentance of sins  

Elimination of Worldly passions 



Prayerful – 5 times daily 

Works and scriptures 

Scripture Study, Prayer  
Concept of God    No God(s) 



Many Gods   Allah  



Sacred Text    Tipitaka  Bible   Bhagavad Gita   Quran and Sunna   Torah  
Rituals    Meditation 

Prayer and seeking salvation. 


Meditation, Worship  

Prayer , 




Ceremonial Duties    Meditation    Prayer, Worship  Meditation, Prayer   Prayer   Prayer, Worship  
  Holy Days  Asalha Puja, Uposatha 


Easter, Sabbath 

Diwali, Dussera,Navratri 


Eid Al-Fitr, Eid Al-Adha 



Life -Question Components 
Ethical System    Peaceful Life, and love of others  Forgiveness and love of others     Peaceful life, share with others  Love of others, share with others, Pray for others   Love of others  
Moral Duties    Do not harm others    Live peacefully with others and love of enemies    Give to the poor and needy  Give to the poor, Pray for others   Pray for others  
  Nature of Evil    Mara  Devil, Satan   Iblis, Shaitan   Satan   No devil   
Prohibitions    None  Murder   Murder   Lack of praying   Murder  
Other Distinction    Incarnation  Heaven and Hell, Circumcision  Incarnation     Heaven  Afterlife  


In comparing the different kinds of religions worldwide, there are various aspects one has to consider about how the followers of the various religions live and follow their moral and ethical codes. The religions mentioned in the matrix above all have, relatively large followings worldwide when compared to other different faiths. All these religions have very complex but well organization structures that support their belief systems. Evil is the basis of the each of the diverse religions and usually contradicts the concept of good. Good and evil are religious properties that have been termed as very vital for the function of these religious structures ( Momen, 2009 ). There is a need for deeper understanding of the philosophical concerns in religion including metaphysics, form, and nature of salvation, and ethics ( Saso, 2015 ). They are all corresponding attributes of the five religious structures mentioned in the matrix. But there also remain coincidental similarities between the religious sects. 

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Similarities in the religions mentioned in the matrix above are mainly concerned with the notion of morality. Each of the five religions mentioned has in some degree or manner a determined agenda of ensuring that their followers have good knowledge and are guided by the sound moral values supporting the beliefs ( Chopra, 2015 ). Another important similarity is in the way that they support the existence of a higher power, and that is divine and above all humans. All the five religions have existed since the early times and have dominated up to date (Stausberg & Engler, 2013). 

There are actual differences among the religions discussed above. In the Buddhist faith, they believe that there is no God. They think that to gain a high level of enlightenment and Dharmic energy; then one needs to have qualities such as love and mindfulness of others. Christianity believes in the God of Abraham, who is above all things ( Momen, 2009 ). In Hindu, they believe in different God but have been so consumed by Buddhism. Hindus believe that Buddha incorporated and accepted all the tenets of the Hindu religion into his doctrine (Bråten, 2013). 

The differences and similarities mentioned above have a significant influence in the way that people interact with each other by work and other social aspects. Employees have to accept each other even when they are from different religions ( Shaw, 2014 ). But that is not usually the case as some people find their religion better than other which may cause conflict. Employees have definite religious views and may focus on different moral, ethical perspectives concerning sharing, forgiving, praying, among others. It is through religion that most people find their basis for morality and ethical aspects. 


Bråten, O. M. (2013).    Towards a methodology for comparative studies in religious education: a study of England and Norway . Waxmann Verlag. 

Chopra, R. M. (2015)  A Study of Religions , Anuradha Prakashan, New Delhi. 

Momen, Moojan (2009)  Understanding Religion: A Thematic Approach . Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. 

Saso, Michael R. (2015)  Mystic, Shaman, Oracle, Priest (MYSHOP): Prayers Without Words . Sino-Asian Institute of America, USA. 

Shaw, Jeffrey M. (2014)  Illusions of Freedom: Thomas Merton and Jacques Ellul on Technology and the Human Condition.  Wipf and Stock. 

Stausberg, M., & Engler, S. (2013).    The Routledge Handbook of research methods in the study of religion . Routledge. 

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