27 Nov 2022


Erik Erikson's eight stages of Psychosocial Development

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Academic level: College

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The theory of psychosocial development is an ideology that describes development from infancy to adulthood. The theory claims in each stage development a person often experience crisis which could turn to be negative or positive to their overall personality. Here is an outline of the developmental stages. 

The first stage involves children in infancy stage, they are to undergo trust versus mistrust and they are said to be uncertain about the world they live in. For them the world is full of unpredictable events and accidents. Those who overcome this crisis develop hope while those who fail will experience fear. 

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The second stage is for the children in early childhood they are beginning to be mobile. At this stages children maybe learning of the capabilities and skills. The crisis experienced in this stage is between Autonomy, Shame, and doubt. Success in this stage will bring about will while failing will make the child lack self-esteem. 

The third stage is for children who are up to age five. The child here is at rapid development and may show behaviors that the parent may not find them appealing. Here they can plan games and activities. The crisis experienced here is between initiative and guilt. The success in this stage will develop the virtue of purpose while failure will make the child have a problem with self-control (Edwards, 2015) 

The fourth stage involves children between the ages of 5 to 12, here the children are learning to learn, write, and do things on their own. Teachers have a role in the child’s development. When children are supported, they become industrious and competitive while those who are not encouraged may feel inferior (MacLeod, 2017). 

The fifth stage is for the adolescent; here they have a crisis with identity and role confusion. Here the individuals are becoming independent and are focused on the future. The individual is wants to fit in and belong to sections of society. Those who become successful here develop a fidelity virtue. Those who fail may have identity crisis and develop bad lifestyles. Unhappiness may occur as consequences of bad identity. 

The sixth stage is for adults who are aged 18- 40 years. Here the major crisis is between intimacy and isolation. Here individuals are planning for long-term commitments. Success in this stage brings happy relationship and leads to love. Fearing relationships and commitments leads to isolation (MacLeod, 2017). 

The seventh stages for those in middle adulthood they have already established their careers, settled in their relationships and have families. The individual are now giving back to society by raising their children and perform at workplaces. Failing at this stage makes people feel unproductive and those who are successful develop virtue of care (Kohlstedt & Visek, 2012). 

The last and final stage is for those with 65 years and more. They tend to be experiencing slowed productivity. They explore life as senior citizens and are full of wisdom. The major crisis here is ego integrity and despair. Those who are dissatisfied with life can develop despair, depression and hopelessness (MacLeod, 2017). 

As an AIU student, which of the stages of Psychosocial Development do you fit in?  Why? 

As an AIU student, I am in fifth stage that entails intense exploration of personal values. At this stage, i am more focused in excelling in the future. I am more concentrated in developing in career, relationships and family. I need I feel to have a section of the society that I can identify with. The anxiety of joining adulthood is phenomenal here. Some of my peers who are struggling in this stage are engaging in drugs and other lifestyles that might turn out to be destructive (MacLeod, 2017). 

Based on your understanding of Erik Erikson's stages of development what information would be beneficial to the parent of a teenager? 

Parents of teenagers need to learn that their children are learning their poles and are at the same time having issues with identity (Edward, 2015). Such a parent should be aware of the curriculum that the child is being educated with. The parent should also try to help the child examine lifestyle. Failure to support the child may lead them to follow bad lifestyles. The parent has role to ensure the child can pursue tasks and do them well (Ramkumar, 2017). 


The Discussion board is very resourceful in understanding development and personal identity. It will help students appreciate who they are and know what is expected of them. It have highlighted the crisis that students maybe facing in life and is providing guidance on how to avoid failure in them. Therefore, the Discussion Board is necessary to all students. 


Edwards H., (2015). Child Development – 3 rd & 4 th Grade Level. Prezi. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/7jd3jw1pqb4d/child-development-3rd-4th-grade-level/ 

Kohlstedt S. S., &Viisek A. J., (2012). Psychosocial Development In College Students. APA Division 47. Retreieved from http://www.apadivisions.org/division-47/publications/newsletters/exercise-sport/2012/04/college-psychosocial-development.aspx 

MacLeod S., (2017). Erick Erickson. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html 

Ramakumar S. (2017) Erik Erikson Theory Of Development: A Teachers Observation. Journal of Krishnamurti Schools. Retrieved from http://www.journal.kfionline.org/issue-6/erik- eriksons-theory-of-development-a-teachers-observations 

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 15). Erik Erikson's eight stages of Psychosocial Development .


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