18 Dec 2022


Fire Prevention and Protection | NFPA

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In the 21st century, the term safety skills have become a basic term used in the prevention of illnesses, explosions, fires, accidents and other events which are harmful to the people, property, and the environment. However, fire is the most destructive as in can lead to loss of life, property as well as damages ( Ferguson & Janicak, 2005). A fire hazard can potentially happen in any place causing deaths, injuries and assets reparations. Hence, the application of fire prevention and protection techniques is necessary to guarantee anywhere. This essay will discuss about fire protection and prevention about the ABC Daycare fire incident in Mexico. 

To prevent fire, measures need to be taken to eliminate the unwanted fuel and ignition sources the procedure requires vigilance, cooperation, and constant action. For example, it’s important to inspect the workplace to identify risks to fire regularly ( Woodrow, & Torero, 2013) . To correct the hazardous situations, management should install better storage and ventilation systems, coming up with strategies to hinder further risk development and replacing or repairing faulty equipment or electrical systems. Consequently, coordination ensures better understanding between the employers and employees in their quest to prevent fires. 

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Fire security engineers use knowledge from science and engineering to help in the fortification of individuals, goods, and processes from explosions and fires (Della -Giustina, 2014). Features of the specialists include the designing of fire suppression and detection systems, assessing buildings to control fire risks and investigating on the type of materials and products and their rate of combustion. 

Since preventing fires is always not 100 percent guaranteed it is important to plan damage control strategies in a fire instance. The fire protection strategies are applied to reduce the extent at which fire can cause indemnities. Hence, to protect from burning, fire extinguishment equipment that is, fire extinguishers, sprinklers and faucet hose pipe systems and open walls and doors are a top priority in any place of work. Furthermore, evacuation of victims involves emergency planning and readiness, as well as putting on detection and notification systems (Della -Giustina, 2014). 

Description of the Dependent Variable 

According to an article in the Daily Kos journal, the ABC daycare fire incident which took place in 2009 in Hermosillo, Mexico, was among the most dreadful tragedies in history. 49 babies and toddlers lost their life due to burns and choking. However, 32 of those who survived suffered from terrible burns and trauma .it’s evident that the building was unfit to be used as a caring facility for children (Chiltepin, 2015). For example, it only had one functioning exit and entrance door.it had no sprinkler pipes or working fire extinguishers. Consequently, the staffs were incompetent for apart from not being in work on that fateful day, they clearly had no knowledge or training to deal with the safety and evacuation processes. A passerby helped the situation by using his lorry to ram into the walls of the center thus creating three holes which were used to evacuate the victims (Chiltepin, 2015). 

The survivors stayed in hospital for weeks fighting for their lives as the dead ones were buried and later the families and well-wishers carried out demonstrations to demand for justice for the affected. The government provided medical assistance and other benefits although the state and city have not offered any help up to now (Chiltepin, 2015) . It’s unfortunate that the then governor, Eduardo Bours who had awarded the owners of the daycare thirteen contracts went away Scott free, despite it being a form of corruption. Despite the tragedy, the government has not yet established a Burn clinic at the children’s hospital in Hermosillo despite receiving funds from donors and well-wishers. 

Role of Independent Variables 

The witnesses did not offer any significant help to stop the fire mainly because there were not many exit or entry points making rescue harder ( Greenhalgh, et.al ,2012). The firefighters took about two hours to halt the fire sign that most of the victims could have died or badly injured by the time they got help. 

The daycare had undergone an inspection on the previous week which had declared the building to be hazard free and that the children at the institution were within the necessary age. Two days later, reports emerged that although the warehouse had exit windows, they were too high such that they could not provide access to the daycare for rescue operations. Further, the converted building had one operational exit while the other was locked. Clearly, that was an engineering error which indirectly led to the death of the kids (Greenhalgh, et al, 2012) 

Hospitals did an excellent job in providing emergency services for the fire victims. For example, the injured children were taken to various hospitals in Jalisco and Guadalajara. A lot of physicians 15 medical specialists were flown in to treat the wounded however some of them were taken to hospitals outside the city to doctors specialized in children’s burns. 

Direct Causes of the Fire 

According to investigations a lot of issues could have resulted in the fire as well as its dire effects. To begin with, the safety inspection law which was supposed to evaluate if the center was safe approved the building although it was not the case. For example, the schools fire alarms were installed below the ceiling sheeting. Furthermore, the laws were not followed in the awarding of contracts as well as getting permission to do the business (Greenhalgh , 2012). 

It’s correct to say that the people in charge of evaluating the availability of fire prevention and protection techniques did not do their job well hence allowed an unsuitable building to be used to take care of minors. 

Likewise, the center did not have water sprinklers which would have spontaneously engaged in case of a fire. Still, although there was an emergency door, it could not be used as it was tightly locked. On the other hand, the fire department reported that the center’s fire alarms were incorrectly installed thus unlikely to work. As a matter of fact, the personnel were not responsible enough for about fourteen of them were missing on the day of the inferno. Therefore that can be labeled as negligence on their part. Lastly, ABC had been allowed to take care of children between two to four years although it had admitted children of a lesser age hence increasing the risk. 

Key Independent Factors for the ABC Fire 

The biggest factor that contributed to the high number of deaths in the ABC scenario is poor building structures .For instance; it was situated near a hardware and other buildings mad of aluminum which made the spreading of fire faster. Nevertheless, it had thick walls and a tarpaulin ceiling which made it difficult to hear sounds or smell. Similarly, the rooms had inadequate protective and preventive systems for example extinguishers which could have been used to stop the smoke and flames, the room had no emergency exit windows, its operational door was small, and the emergency exit door was locked .the poor ventilation is what led to choking, damages and death. 

Impact on Society 

Safety managers have the responsibility of protecting the workplace from fires. This is due to the development of modern technologies that need professional handling in protecting and preventing fires. They are entrusted to make sure that the property of a company is well protected, prevent monetary loses and more significantly, safeguard the workers from its adverse effects ( Woodrow & Torero, 2013). Additionally this has helped the society to be risk free as well as has a better understanding of dealing with such catastrophes. 

Personal Reflection 

By studying the consequences of actual fires and how to manage the problem I think that’s it’s the duty of every individual to take action to protect and prevent fire .With the development of new buildings every day, I agree that we should have more people in the fire safety docket to ensure that workplaces have been designed in ways which will make escape and rescue operations easier ( Woodrow & Torero, 2013). Similarly, they are necessary in helping industries formulate the best safety policies, take action on the risks anticipated alongside buying and installing the right equipment to prevent and protect fire incidences. 


There have been many historical fire occurrences which have led to deaths, injuries, and property loss. In the US, fires account for a large number of dead people. The ABC Daycare incident is an example of the most disastrous fires. Poor designing, negligence and unreliable equipment and corruption are some of the causes of most fires. Different stakeholders have recommended for the introduction of fire safety practices to save the people and businesses. Fire protection and prevention are activities which have been endorsed aiming to minimize the occurrence and magnitude of the condition. That’s why an effective fire safety program needs the two processes. It’s the duty of all administration, management, and the employees to work together to stop fire accidents. 


Chiltepin. (2015). Hermosillo's ABC Daycare Fire 6 Years Later Daily Kos . Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://www.dailykos.com/story/2015/6/1/1389505/-Hermosillo-s-ABC-Daycare-Fire-6-Years-Later 

Della-Giustina, D. E. (2014). Fire Safety Management Handbook : CRC Press. 

Ferguson, L. H., & Janicak, C. A. (2005). Fundamentals of fire protection for the safety professional : Government Institutes. 

Greenhalgh, D. G., Chang, P., Maguina, P., Combs, E., Sen, S., & Palmieri, T. L. (2012). ABC daycare disaster of Hermosillo, Mexico: Journal of Burn Care & Research , 33 (2), 235-241. 

Woodrow, M., Bisby, L., & Torero, J. L. (2013). A nascent educational framework for fire safety engineering: Fire safety journal , 58 , 180-194. 

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