10 Oct 2022


Herbert Kaufman's Three Organizational Values: A Framework for Understanding Organizational Effectiveness

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The three organizational values that have shaped the U.S. administrative structure include representativeness, neutral competence, and executive’s leaderships. Herbert Kaufman postulated that the three values are applied in simultaneously and no rule can qualify one value as the best over the rest (Bourne, & Jenkins, 2013). The representation is a value that seeks to empower the legislature and identifies the functions of the local government and the federal governments. The role of the legislature is making and the implementations of the laws. 

The pursuit of neutral competence sought to ensure that experts in various fields perform a particular task in the government. The value was to help the staff to overcome personal obligations and carry out their duties according to the set standards and objectives. Besides, the value was to separate politics from the obligations of the government (Bourne, & Jenkins, 2013). The executive leadership was to centralize the decisions making regarding critical sectors of development in the country. The executive leadership was to give the president powers over the independent regulatory commission, personnel management and strengthen staff in the Whitehouse. 

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The three values have been applied simultaneously in the development the U.S administrative structures. However, over the time there has been evidence of a shift to executives’ leadership because of the weakness of neutral competence and representativeness. The two values advocates for the distributions of powers and fragmentation of the government (Bourne, & Jenkins, 2013). The fragments allow the officials to pursue the personal goals with no reference to crucial arms of the government. Additionally, the fragmentations of government are a weakness because it reduces the efficiency of operations in the federal government and causes lack of coordination. The executive leaders can be implemented in different organizations to enhance effectiveness in the operations. The executive leadership promotes the coordination of activities and the runs the government. 


Bourne, H., & Jenkins, M. (2013). Organizational values: A dynamic perspective.    Organization Studies ,    34 (4), 495-514. 

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