18 Apr 2022


How Piaget's Work has influenced Instruction and Curriculum Development

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The Jean Piaget is meant to construct a model of development and learning for children. The theory is based on the fact that a child experiencing the development process builds cognitive structures. Additionally, the theory states that the cognitive structure of a child becomes sophisticated as the child develops, shifting from a few innate reflexes for instance crying and sucking to extensively diverge mental activities. Jean Piaget’s theory highlights four stages of development and processes that children pass through. The four stages include; 

The sensorimotor stage; from delivery to two years

In this stage, children usually experience the world through movement and their five senses. During this first stage, children are usually so much egocentric since they cannot perceive the globe the way other people may perceive it. Therefore, this stage is subdivided into other different divisions such as the three simple reflexes stage, the initial habit and primary circular reactions. The other stages under the sensorimotor stage are the secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions and internalization of schemata. 

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The pre-operational stage; from ages 2 to 7 years

In this second stage, the child is still in a position to understand the concrete logic and it cannot mentally manipulate the information being passed. Pre-operational stage can be divided into two different sub stages such as; symbolic function and intuitive thoughts. 

Concrete operations; from ages 7 to 11 years

In this stage, the child begins to understand different ideas and new topics that seemed strange. It is therefore in this stage that they will start developing problem solving skills that will assist it dealing with ideas such as arithmetic equations. The child will understand that the equations can be solved with digits and not just with the objects as it was thought in counting.

Formal operations from ages 11 to 15 years

It is at this stage that the child is in a position to easily utilize and logically think in his mind just as the young adult do. The stage gives them room to think critically since they will be in a position to logically think as compared to other first stages. 

The four stages of development and processes offer assistance to the curriculum developers so as to understand the ability of the child to conceptualize the globe. Typically, they cannot be assigned some activities since they are not psychologically mature. According to Piaget, it is stated that knowledge generally acquired by the learners from the same environment they are and not that it is imparted by other people. The information that was collected from other classes cannot necessarily comprehend successfully by young ( Kadak, & Nasıroğlu, 2012). Individuals in concrete operational stage are required to touch and manipulate concrete materials so as to get important ideas that can assist them during their learning. For them to master whatever has been taught, the teacher must be patient enough and ready to keep on repeating the ideas, give them a chance to remember them for durable effects. Also, it helps the curriculum developers in their daily activities to form new techniques that will of importance to each and every individual. Piaget theory also mentions that children usually develop knowledge due to the fact that there is a strong relationship existing between a child’s cognitive system and the activities at hand. 

According to available literature, it is stated that the ideas are made by children via reality reconstruction rather than its imitation. On the contrary, others experts posit that there is need for provision of firsthand encounters ion the educational programs developed for children to raise ownership and expertise. Basically, knowing is a process rather than a product as such thought. 

It is noted that children go through four successive periods of development. During each of the four periods, children conceptualize the globe in different manner and the language also develops in a required manner. When a child is still in the pre-primary, usually, their language is not fully developed. They only use the language that can enable them communicate with other pupils in school and at home. The developers should therefore understand the fact it is upon the teachers to use the best technique that can allow them communicate to them appropriately without problems so as to enhance delivery content ( DyckFehderau et al., 2013 ). Gradually the language increases to finer aspects and can now be in a place to comprehend almost all the details regarding a particular issue. The books they are reading should contain the contents that will improve their skills and also promote their concept development. Basically, the material must contain vocabulary which is one of the important things to their backgrounds, interests and the innermost feelings. 

According to the Piaget’s social-constructivist, it states that the preoccupation is not an instruction from the teacher but it is a child’s idea. Constructivist teachers therefore view their activity as offering creative opportunities for the children so that they can experience the related ideas which will guide them to consider the content and clarify thinking. 

Generally, a child usually communicates to an idea he want to learn to the teacher. On the other hand, adults do use open-ended questions and unique methods that will assist the child to find a better solution. Often, adult language use will result in children`s use of speech being the process of solving problems. Research reveals that stimulation of a spontaneous use of private speech to act as a tool for self-regulation and solving problems represents a crucial way in which scaffolding affect the cognitive performance of a child (DeVries & Kohlberg, 1990). Several studies done previously highlight that individuals often use private speech while carrying out any activity with an adult who sensitively supports their work. The adult within the partnership cannot be a teacher of the conventional sense since the person will not be in a position to handle the children appropriately. The Michelangelo School in Italy, for instance, shared to Canadian Delegation of 1993 that for co-construct of knowledge among children, the same children should be subjected to a favorable environment and provided a good facilitator to assist them (DeVries & Kohlberg, 1990). Support will come through as they are provided with all requirements to help them out during their projects. 


DeVries, R., & Kohlberg, L., (1990). Constructivist Early Education: Overview and Comparison with other Programs. Washington, D.C: National Association for the Education of Young Children

DyckFehderau, D., Holt, N. L., Ball, G. D., & Willows, N. D. (2013). Feasibility Study of Asset Mapping with Children: Identifying How the Community Environment Shapes Activity and Food Choices in Alexander First Nation. Rural Remote Health

Kadak, M. T., & Nasıroğlu, S. (2012). Personality Development. Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar-Current Approaches in Psychiatry , 4 (4), 566-589.

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