13 Dec 2022


How to Create a Viral Marketing Campaign

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There are two main categories of immune responses. These are the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response. The innate immune response is one which relies on cells that do not need additional training to do their jobs ( Dunkelberger & Song, 2010) . The cells which take part in the innate immune response include monocytes, neutrophils, complement proteins, natural killer cells. The innate response to infections occurs rapidly and reliably. 

The adaptive immune response comprises of the secondary category. This response involves T-cells and B-cells. These cells require education or training to learn which cells to attack. Central to both immune responses is their ability to differentiate foreign invaders from body tissues that need to be protected ( Holgate, 2012) . Due to their capacity to respond rapidly to foreign bodies, the innate immune response is normally the first to respond to invasion. The initial response alerts and triggers the adaptive response. 

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Each cell type has their role. For example, monocytes carry out three main functions in the immune response. These are phagocytosis, cytokine production, and antigen presentation. Phagocytosis is the uptake, digestion, and destruction of microbes and particles ( Bertoletti & Ferrari, 2011) . Cytokine production helps to block viral replication and trigger inflammatory response which helps to fight against antigens. Neutrophils play a role in the innate immune response by rapidly ingesting microorganisms and killing them. Natural cell killers, like neutrophils, also ingest and kill foreign bodies ( Beurel, Michalek & Jope, 2010) . Complement proteins play a role in the innate immune response by initiating inflammatory response that helps to fight infections. A virus needs to overcome all these cells before it can manage to attack the body. Containing these cells will enable the virus to benefit from the natural immunodeficiency. 


Dunkelberger, J. R., & Song, W. C. (2010). Complement and its role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Cell research , 20 (1), 34-50. 

Holgate, S. T. (2012). Innate and adaptive immune responses in asthma. Nature medicine , 18 (5), 673-683. 

Bertoletti, A., & Ferrari, C. (2011). Innate and adaptive immune responses in chronic hepatitis B virus infections: towards restoration of immune control of viral infection. Gut , gutjnl- 2011. 

Beurel, E., Michalek, S. M., & Jope, R. S. (2010). Innate and adaptive immune responses regulated by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). Trends in immunology , 31 (1), 24-31. 

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 16). How to Create a Viral Marketing Campaign.


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