In most instances, the elderly smokers suffer many diseases because of the long-term tobacco smoke consumption. In extreme cases, these include lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This makes their life hard in their old ages and cessation becomes necessary if they have to be healthy. Consequently, their care providers provide them with ample support to quit smoking. This study uses literature review to show the different cases of smoking cessation among the elderly. It exemplifies the conditions they suffer and the best process to help them quit smoking. It also shows the reactions of the elderly to care providers who advise them to quit smoking.
Winpenny, et al (2017) conducted a study with the objective of examining the relationship between physician advice to quit smoking among the elderly people over 65 years and patient care experiences. The study used fixed effects linear regression models to analyze the cross section data that was collected form 26, 432 smokers spread across the country. Notably all these were aged over 65 years. The report findings indicated that eleven out of twelve patients experience measures were more positive among the smokers who were always advised to quit smoking than those who were advised to quit on less frequent instances. There was intensified but significant and positive connection of advice to stop smoking with both physician communication and physician rating after all the other measures of care experiences were controlled. The conclusion of the study was that the physician provided cessation advice was related with positive patient assessment of their physicians. The report also showed that smaller studies conducted before showed that patients who were previously advised to quit smoking were more content with the care they received than the contrary cases.
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Talon et al 2017 also conducted a study that associated erectile dysfunction among men with the exposure to air pollution. Notably, cigarette smoke was among the main causes of pollution. They stated that erectile dysfunction ED occurs on 64% of all the men who are aged over 60 years. The study aimed at exploring the relationship between ED and pollution and how smoking cessation or staying out of smoke infested affects the condition. The researchers obtained the ED status of participants who were 412 men aged between 57 and 85 years. The exposure to fine particulate matter were estimated using spatial temporal models that were based on the participants geo-coded addresses. On the other hand, nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentration were estimated using the agency's air quality system. Moreover, the smoking levels were measured among those who smoked with the non-smokers being used as a control group. Logistic regression models were used to control the education, race, obesity, season, median household income, among other aspects. Consequently, the result obtained indicated that there was positive association between ozone, nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter exposures and ED, and these were dependent on the exposure windows. Moreover, it indicated that there were higher levels of ED among the smokers. Additionally, the smokers were requested to quit smoking and those who were successful were tested again in a span of 6 months. The results provided indicated that the level of ED had reduced significantly. On the contrary, for those in the study who were unable to quit smoking, their ED levels rose within the 6 months. The conclusion of the report was that there was an undeniable association between the pollutants and odds of developing the erectile dysfunction among the elderly. Moreover, there was a clear connection between smoking and a higher level of ED, which changed drastically upon smoking cessation.
Finally, Fotokian et al (2017) conducted a study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is mostly caused by smoking. The condition is a serious health issue that mainly affects the elderly people. The empowerment approach was used to promote their health, as this would add more knowledge on the group. The objective of the study was to report on people's experiences of the empowerment of older people with COPD. Moreover, the researchers used the qualitative design that uses the grounded theory methodology. Notably, the theory was chosen because it focuses on how people respond to the problems that they encounter. Data was collected using interviews and collecting research notes in the field. Moreover, there were 24 people in the sample, and they were chosen using purposive sampling strategy. The results indicated that the sick people's families, caregivers and professional team members all worked to help the patients battle with the diseases. One of the most common strategy was to make the patients quit smoking, as most had smoked all or almost all their lives. Moreover, the report indicated that managing COPD was influenced by co-existence with aging, challenged health system, personal potential, and weak social support. However, managing the condition well made the elder live optimally and feel in control of the situation. Consequently, the report concluded that understanding the experiences of the empowerment program could help the health care professionals provide more effective and focused care.
Conclusively, smoking cessation is a vital element in ensuing that the elderly enjoy better health. Notably many of them by this age have acquired smoking related infections because of the long-term smoking they engaged in from as early as teenage years. Consequently, their care providers need to offer them the best support to assist them quit smoking.
Fotokian, Z., Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, F., Fallahi-Khoshknab, M., & Pourhabib, A. (2017). The empowerment of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Managing life with the disease. Plos ONE , 12 (4), 1-16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0174028
Tallon, L. A., Manjourides, J., Pun, V. C., Mittleman, M. A., Kioumourtzoglou, M., Coull, B., & Suh, H. (2017). Erectile dysfunction and exposure to ambient Air pollution in a nationally representative cohort of older Men. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source , 16 1-9. doi: 10.1186/s12940-017-0216-6
Winpenny, E., Elliott, M. N., Haas, A., Havilland, A. M., Orr, N., Shadel, W. G., & ... Cleary, P. D. (2017). Advice to Quit Smoking and Ratings of Health Care among Medicare Beneficiaries Aged 65. Health Services Research , 52 (1), 207-219. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12491