31 May 2022


Controversies in Complimentary Alternative Medicine

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Diabetes and anxiety have become prevalent in the modern world. The adoption of unhealthy lifestyles is a major cause of the increase in the number of individuals with diabetes. On the other hand, the intense pressures that people succumb to in their daily lives are the core reason for the prevalence of anxiety in the global society. Aside from Western medication, complimentary alternative medicines are also effective in the prevention, management, and treatment of these ailments. Complimentary alternative medicine entails therapies that are not conventional, or rather, various forms of treatment which are not widely employed by medical professionals for the treatment of various ailments. Additionally, the various medical skills which are not incorporated into the medical syllabus of orthodox and paramedic medical courses are also referred to as CAM. The use of various complimentary alternative treatments is useful in the management and treatment of various diseases.

Diabetes and Its Symptoms 

According to Ramachandran (2014), d iabetes is a condition in which an individual’s blood sugar levels are either too high or too low, necessitating immediate medical intervention. Blood glucose is the primary source of energy in the human body. Glucose is derived from the foods that people consume and the blood distributes this glucose to every cell in the human body. The primary function of the pancreas is to produce and release the insulin hormone into the blood. Insulin enables the blood to effectively distribute glucose to the body cells ( Ramachandran, 2014) . Nonetheless, sometimes the pancreas fails to make adequate insulin. Other times, the insulin that is produced fails to work productively. Consequently, glucose is retained in the blood as opposed to being distributed to the body cells. When this happens, an individual’s blood sugar level rises causing diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body fails to produce adequate insulin or any insulin at all, since the cells that manufacture insulin are attacked and obliterated by the body’s immune system. Ramachandran (2014) argues that t his type of diabetes is also referred to as juvenile diabetes since it is most common in youngsters. Nonetheless, it also occurs in adults.

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Type 2 diabetes is normally characterized by insulin resistance. In this diabetes type, the body’s, fat, muscles, and liver cells fail to use insulin for the distribution of glucose into body cells, so that it can be used for energy. Consequently, this necessitates more insulin production in the body, so that glucose can be properly distributed. The pancreas tries to keep up with the insulin demand at first and then fails to make enough of this hormone, when the levels of blood glucose increase, for instance, after eating. According to Ramachandran (2014), this type of diabetes is most common in adults.

The last category is gestational diabetes, which occurs in expectant women since various hormones which impact insulin resistance are produced. Nonetheless, this type of diabetes usually disappears soon after birth. Diabetes is manifested via a number of signs and symptoms such as increased thirst, frequent urination, excessive hunger, feeling tired, and weight loss, wounds that heal at a very slow rate, dry and itchy skin, blurred vision, and numbness in the feet. These are the most common signs and symptoms of this ailment.

Relevant Diabetes Interventions 

According to Alouki, Delisle, Bermúdez-Tamayo, & Johri (2016), intensive lifestyle interventions are critical preventative measures against diabetes since a lifestyle induced ailment. Diabetes is prevented through the adoption of a healthy diet and augmented physical activity. Alouki, Delisle, Bermúdez-Tamayo, & Johri (2016) further argue that the use of these interventions at the pre-diabetes phase has been productive in the reduction of diabetes incidences by fifty-eight percent, in the state of China. The researchers argue that the key to preventing T2DM is through weight control since increased weight is a chief risk factor for this disease. 

Thrower & Bingley (2011) argue that T1DM affects more than twenty million individuals worldwide, especially youngsters under five years of age. The authors further argue that immune interventions are highly effective in delaying the progression of T1DM. Additionally, young children should be taken for screening, for the identification of individuals who are highly susceptible to T1DM. 

Insulin therapy is the most relevant intervention T1DM. The dosage of insulin is typically weight-based, ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 units/kg of body weight. In metabolically stable individuals, a dose of 0.5 units/kg is prescribed ( Chamberlain, et al. 2017 ). In patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, advanced weight-based doses are prescribed. In adolescent patients, greater insulin doses are given. Furthermore, patients are required to observe a strict diet and be physically active.

According to Marín-Peñalver, Martín-Timón, Sevillano-Collantes, & Del Cañizo-Gómez (2016) pharmacological treatment and the adoption of a healthy diet are recommended for persons suffering from T2DM. In T2DM patients, oral and injectable DRUGS are used. Metformin is among the first treatments administered to patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. Additionally, oral hypoglycemic treatments such as insulin sulfonylureas and meglitinides are also prescribed. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are also given as an n intervention for T2DM. 

Diversity Issues that Apply to the Interventions 

The medical profession is faced by various diversity issues which jeopardize the ethical practice of healthcare providers. Diversity issues in diabetes interventions arise mostly in the treatment of patients from minority groups due to the various cultural beliefs, views, and assumptions that exist within these groups. For instance, most Asian cultures consider it brutal for doctors to directly inform patients of their serious diabetic conditions. Where Bosnian/Americans are concerned, disclosing such information to a patient is considered disrespectful. As a result, doctors and other healthcare specialists are forced to conceal such information from patients, inhibiting proper healthcare since treatment is effective when a person completely understands his/her condition. 

Additionally, treating patients of Hmong descent has also been another challenge in the medical sector. Hmong beliefs and practices inhibit proper medical care. For instance, the Hmong’s believe that vaccinations make their children unwell (Baker, Dang, Ly, & Diaz, 2010). As a result, these people are very reluctant to administer insulin injections to children with T1DM. Additionally, when it comes to dietary interventions, the culture of the Hmong’s inhibiting proper execution of the required interventions. For instance, the Hmong’s put their children on a strict diet of hot rice and boiled chicken since they believe that this will make their children better (Baker, Dang, Ly, & Diaz, 2010). Since diet is a critical aspect of diabetes, such beliefs inhibit proper diabetes management since children do not follow the recommended diet. Medical specialists face numerous diversity issues and ethical dilemmas in their attempts to provide effective diabetic interventions to their patients. 

Relevant Positive Research on CAM 

Various studies prove the effectiveness of various CAM’s in the prevention, control, and treatment of diabetes. Gymnema is an ascending plant whose leaves are employed in the treatment of diverse conditions such as obesity, diabetes, allergies, as well as hyperlipidemia. The plant is mostly used in various regions of Africa and Australia. Tackett & Jones (2009 ) argues that the trivial number of non-randomized control and open-label trials conducted have proven that the plant decreases the levels of blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin Alc in diabetic patients. Furthermore, no side effects were reported from these studies, which make the medication productive for use. 

Similarly, Tackett & Jones (2009 ) argue that banaba, or rather Lagerstroemia speciosa , is productive in stimulating the distribution and uptake of glucose by adipocytes, due to the plant's tannin molecules components. A study of the effects of banaba on mice reflected a noteworthy reduction of Alc levels in comparison to the results derived from the control group. Furthermore, this compound alleviated triglyceride levels in the treatment group as opposed to the control group. The results showed that banaba can be effective for use in the treatment of diabetes.

Tackett & Jones (2009 ) also argue that Cinnamon is fruitful medication in the management of diabetes. Cinnamon is an ordinary spice which is used to drop appetite and dyspeptic constituents. Cinnamon is comprised of naturally active elements which are characterized by insulin-mimetic properties ( Tackett & Jones, 2009 ). A randomized control trial was first used to examine the impacts of cinnamon on fasting serum glucose levels and fasting levels of cholesterol in patients with T2DM. Additionally, the RCT was blinded and placebo-controlled. Sixty patients were used in the trial. The final results indicated a reduction in the levels of fasting serum glucose, as well as the levels of cholesterol and triglyceride ( Tackett & Jones, 2009 ).

According to Malone & Tsai (2018), green tea, which is derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis , is useful in the treatment of diabetes. The results of a retrospective Japanese cohort study showed individuals who are accustomed to taking green tea were one third less susceptible to T2DM. A study carried out for ten years in Taiwan indicated that people who consumed this remedy had low levels of body fat and reduced waist circumference. Furthermore, a meta-analysis, as well as a systematic review carried out in the year 2014, demonstrated that the consumption of three plus cups of green tea lessens the chances of contracting diabetes ( Malone & Tsai, 2018 ). A randomized control trial conducted in the year 2017 reveals that green tea enhances glucose management and Alc values ( Malone & Tsai, 2018) .

DiNardo, Gibson, Siminerio, Morell, & Lee (2012) argue that Yoga has a significant role in diabetes management since it fosters enhancements in body weight as well improvements in glycemia and oxidation (DiNardo et al. 2012). The practices of breath control, meditation, and body postures were deemed effective in stimulating body relaxation, as well weight control which is a core requirement for diabetics (Dham, Shah, Hirsch, & Banerji, 2006). Noteworthy enhancements in physical, psychosomatic, and social spheres were reflected by WHO and in the RCTs conducted. Nonetheless, there is a need for further research prior to the establishment of generalizations on the efficiency of yoga in diabetes. 

Aziz et al. (2018) advocate for the use of Ginkgo biloba extract as well as the conventional metformin for T2DM. The randomized and placebo-controlled trial conducted in the study demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract as a supplement to conventional treatment enhances the health outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus. It is therefore recommended as a dietary complement for the control of DM (diabetes mellitus). The use of Metformin and GKB extract was deemed productive in the momentous decrease of the body mass indexes of diabetic patients. Additionally, the extract also expressed a drop in serum ALP action. When used as an adjuvant, the extract improves HbA1c and FSG concentration, IR index, Body Mass Index, as well as VAI in T2DM patients (Aziz et al. 2018). 

According to Dham, Shah, Hirsch, & Banerji (2006), the use of massage enhances blood flow, uptake, as well as pancreatic function. The researchers argue that massaging the place where insulin is injected can stimulate the absorption and levels of blood insulin in T1DM. The use of massage therapy on eight patients, for a series of eighteen months, demonstrated improvements in glycemic control. 

Relevant Negative Research on CAM 

Despite the efficacy of CAM in the treatment of diabetes, chromium has been deemed ineffective for use due to its adverse impacts on human health. Chromium is extensively used by many diabetic patients as an alternative medication for diverse conditions such as weight management and the promotion of insulin sensitivity. According to Tackett, & Jones (2009 ) chromium plays a critical role in glucose tolerance. The influences of chromium on insulin resistance are depicted in persons’ with chromium deficiency. Hypothetically, diabetic patients have low levels of chromium as a result of the augmented levels of absorption and intensified excretion levels. This is the main reason for the enhanced glucose control in diabetic individuals who take chromium supplements ( Tackett, & Jones, 2009 ). Nonetheless, chromium impacts transient cognitive dysfunction, which makes it detrimental to human health.

Support for CAM 

Complimentary alternative medications are highly effective in the deterrence and control of diabetes. Numerous alternative medications should be employed to enable people to manage the disease more productively. Furthermore, most of these remedies are beneficial in the prevention of cancer, as well as kidney related diseases. CAM should, therefore, be integrated into the conventional medical practice, to stimulate the health of individuals in the society. Nonetheless, only those alternative medications that have been proven effective should be employed in the healthcare setting.

Part Two 

Anxiety and Its’ Symptoms 

Anxiety refers to a combination of various disorders such as increased tension, fear, and uneasiness. Anxiety impacts an individual’s feelings, as well as his/her behavior. Severe anxiety can be extremely detrimental to the normal functioning of an individual. In addition, anxiety is manifested via multiple symptoms. Individuals with anxiety display symptoms such as sweating augmented heartbeat, and fast breathing, nausea, dizziness, and pain in the chest, and, choking sensations.

Review of Relevant interventions for this Type 

Stonerock, Hoffman, Smith, & Blumenthal (2015) argue that anxiety is a mental state which is manifested by fear. Regular exercising is recommended as an anxiety intervention since it alleviates the symptoms of anxiety. Additionally, the use of tricyclic antidepressant drugs is also employed in the treatment of anxiety. Clomipramine, for instance, is productive in the decrease of panic attacks, as well as anticipatory anxiety. Similarly, desipramine is also employed in the treatment of anxiety disorders since it deters the re-uptake of noradrenaline. 

Diversity Issues that Apply to Anxiety Interventions 

Medical professions face a lot of diversity issues in their attempts to provide effective anxiety treatment to their patients. For instance, the Hmong’s believe in traditional as opposed to western medication. Therefore, it becomes very hard to convince patients and their families to accept western medication and anxiety interventions. Additionally, medical professionals face a lot of challenges when dealing with Hmong patients with anxiety, since it is mandatory for the patient’s family to be involved in decision making ( Bengiamin, Chang, & Capitman, 2011) . Most of the times, healthcare specialists have to involve the Sharman’s and various clan members of Hmong patients, in making decisions pertaining to anxiety treatment, since decision making is a process that involves the entire clan, as well as its leaders.

Consequently, nurses and other medical professionals who fail to understand this are unable to give holistic care to their patients ( Bengiamin, Chang, & Capitman, 2011) . Additionally, these people consider it very rude for people to make direct eye contact when they communicate. As a result, a nurse’s effort’s to convince the family of a patient suffering from anxiety to embrace western medical care is mostly futile if the nurses are unaware of the various cultural beliefs of the Hmong’s. Therefore, cultural competency is critical in fostering a deeper understanding of various cultures, as well as the provision of effective treatment to diverse patients.

Relevant Positive Anxiety Research on CAM 

Anxiety is one of the major mental disorders globally. It affects approximately fifty-five million in the United States ( Lakhan, & Vieira, 2010). Furthermore, the intricacy of the nervous system makes identification, treatment, and the treatment of anxiety very challenging. Lakhan & Vieira (2010) advocate for the use of herbal medicine in the treatment of anxiety disorders. The use of P assiflora incarnate (passion flower) has been deemed effective in the treatment of anxiety. Passionflower has been used over the years as an anxiolytic agent. A randomized controlled trial which was conducted to analyze the efficiency of passionflower in the treatment of anxiety indicated that passionflower was as productive as benzodiazepines, in the alleviation of the symptoms of anxiety. Furthermore, Lakhan, & Vieira (2010) argues that passionflower may have an important part to play in the treatment of anxiety disorders. 

Additionally, St John’s Wort, otherwise known Hypericum perforatum, has also been significant in the reduction and elimination of the symptoms of anxiety. The remedy was even approved in the state of Germany for the management of anxiety. In a Randomized Control Trial, one hundred and forty-nine patients who were treated using this remedy demonstrated a significant decline in anxiety levels. St. John’s Wort is therefore productive in the treatment of this disorder and should be integrated into conventional medical practices ( Lakhan & Vieira, 2010 ).

Ullman (2008) advocates for the use of Ignatia Amara (St Ignatius bean) as a home-based therapy for serious anxiety and depression. The remedy can also be used by individuals during difficult times such as times of grief or mourning. The substance should be prescribed to individuals with irrepressible crying. Additionally, Aconitum napellus is deemed productive in the treatment of anxiety which results from sudden stress. The drug has the ability to impact calmness, aiding in the healing process. Ullman (2008) also claims that the use of Gelsemium sempervirens, also known as yellow Jessamine relieves the stress and anxiety that occurs due to the pressures of examinations. 

Hart (2008) on the other hand, advocates for meditative practices as a strategy to alleviate the symptoms of anxiety. According to Hart (2008), various mediatory practices may be useful in reducing the stress levels of various individuals. Furthermore, meditation is cost-effective and is free from any side effects. An RCT conducted in Massachusetts at the Centre for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders indicated relevant decreases in anxiety and distress levels in the ninety-three individuals that were involved in the eight-week intervention. DiNardo, Gibson, Siminerio, Morell, & Lee (2012) argue that various Yoga practices such as breath control, meditation, and physical postures are fruitful in fostering body relaxation, which is critical in the reduction of anxiety (Dham, Shah, Hirsch, & Banerji, 2006). 

Jazaieri, Goldin, Werner, Ziv, & Gross (2012) argues that mindfulness-based stress reduction is a contemporary medical strategy used for the management of mood and anxiety disorders. MBSR has positive impacts such as enhanced mental and psychological health, as demonstrated in a series of controlled and uncontrolled trials. Jazaieri, Goldin, Werner, Ziv, & Gross (2012) argue that even two weeks of exercise interventions in an RCT included in the research had substantial outcomes in anxiety sensitivity (Jazaieri, Goldin, Werner, Ziv, & Gross (2012). 

Amorim et al. (2018), argues that acupuncture, a traditional energy-related medical approach which is used by the Chinese, has positive impacts on individuals suffering from anxiety. Acupuncture redirects and synchronizes energy flow between the fourteen chief energy routes, otherwise known as meridians. The approach involves stimulation of different points of the skin by use of needles within the three hundred and sixty acupoints. Apparently, every organ in the body is connected to a particular meridian. Hence, the stimulation of a specific acupoint fosters an interaction with the other organs, which synchronizes the flow of energy. In the traditional Chinese medicine, anxiety was said to be the outcome of ineffective flow of energy and communication between the heart and the kidneys. Additionally, anxiety is attributed to the hyperactivity of the liver. Therefore, acupuncture is beneficial since it fosters the stimulation of particular trigger points, alleviating anxiety (Amorim et al. 2018). 

Relative Negative CAM Research on Anxiety 

Lakhan & Vieira (2010) argue that kava is a drink that is derived from a plant known as Piper methysticum. The remedy is used to get rid of the symptoms of anxiety, restlessness, as well as insomnia. Tests of the effectiveness of the drug that was used in animals demonstrated that the Kava plant has an anxiolytic agent ( Lakhan & Vieira, 2010 ). The first randomized control trial depicted a significant enhancement in the relief of primary and secondary anxiety symptoms. Nonetheless, the remedy has been deemed hazardous since it exposes individuals to a high risk of liver damage. Due to this, kava supplements were banned in countries such as Canada and the United Kingdom in the year 2002. The drug is therefore ineffective for use until proven otherwise.


The use of complementary alternative medication is highly effective for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. The different CAM’s discussed above should, therefore, be integrated into the treatment of this disease, due to their beneficial impacts. Nonetheless, extensive research should be conducted first, to ascertain the beneficial effects of these remedies before they are employed in the medical setting. In addition, treatments that have been deemed ineffective for use due to their negative impacts such as the kava drink should not recommend, since it is detrimental to human health. The use of complementary alternative medicine can be highly productive in the prevention and treatment of anxiety, as well as other diseases.


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to prevent type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of economic evaluation studies.  Journal 

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the clinical research.  Complementary therapies in clinical practice

Aziz, T. A., Hussain, S. A., Mahwi, T. O., Ahmed, Z. A., Rahman, H. S., & Rasedee, A. (2018). The efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract as an adjuvant in type 2 diabetes 

mellitus patients ineffectively managed with metformin: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.  Drug design, development, and therapy 12 , 735. 

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