19 Dec 2022


Gene Technology: The Process of Manipulating Genes in a Living Organism to Change Its Characteristics

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The development of technologies that allow targeted manipulation of materials that can be genetically manipulated has enabled the chances of exploring new avenues in biomedical (Frewer, et al., 2013) . Additionally, there have also be been an increase in the development of the models of animals that are able to target specific genetic interactions to evaluate the regulation, organization, pathology and biological function of the molecular process. Because of the experimental nature of such processes, it is argued that a few species such as zebras are now being used apart from common species such as mice (Damron, 2013) . As far as this technology is beneficial, it is clear that there are also a number of public discontents about its usage. One such issue revolves around fundamental ethical questions as far as the employment of GM technology is concerned as well as the notions of life sanctity. Moreover, other issues such as the autonomy of the individual coupled with the risks to the environment and human health are also major concerns of the public. Furthermore, questions as far as the animals employed in the GM technology research has also been raised a number of times in regards to their safety (Damron, 2013) . Therefore, it is clear that the management and employment of GM animals offer new challenges not only in regards to addressing ethical decisions and the welfare of the animals but also in regards to managing burgeoning numbers of the strains of animals effectively. 

Animal Genetic Modification involves tampering its genetic material by changing, adding or removing a number of DNA sequences in a manner that does not happen naturally. Additionally, GMA aims at altering the attributes of an animal while at the same time trying to introduce a new trait in the form of enhanced growth or disease resistance (Chin, 2014) . In this case, DNA is basically the genetic material that is found in an organism and possesses the instructions and conditions for all the attributes that are inherited by an organism. As a result, the alterations that are introduced in the genetic make-up of an animal can as well be transmitted to the animals next generation. 

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One reason why this scientific technique started to exist was based on the observation that animals are capable of transmitting some of their biological attributes to their offspring. As a result, genetic selection established its roots as an essential way of breeding animals. Since then, it has been responding well to the expectations that humans possessed (Chin, 2014) . In other words, some animals find it challenging to survive on their own without getting some help from the humans hence making some of them to find it difficult to cross with animals that can be classified as their relatives. In essence, genetic selection has developed but one thing for sure is that it is still dependent on spontaneous random and natural mutations. Additionally, in an effort to extend the choice of animals for selection, mutagenic chemical compounds were the most preferred elements by humans (Damron, 2013) . At this point, the mutations were deemed successful but what actually remained was the fact that they were still unknown and totally random. Apparently, the employment of mutagens, however, has now been restricted to animals only for practical purposes basically to two animal species namely the mice and the fly; which are only employed for basic research. 

Some of the list of accomplishments as far as genetically modified animals are concerned includes things like organ donors, biological products, vaccine safety, and evaluation and creation of more disease resistant animals. Genetically modified animals are guided by scientific principles that can as well be considered as ethical principles of GMA technology. One clear principle that this technology employs is trying as much as possible to curb or rather minimize the risks of danger to the animals involved. Moreover, the manner in which the GMA are produced and handled can as well act as a principle guiding the genetically Modified Animals technology. In other words, an animal whose genes need to be altered needs to be stabilized for a minimum of two noncontiguous generations and in the process, they must at times try as well to minimize the impact on their counterpart. 

Biotechnology may as well offer answers to the ethical challenges that are incurred when animals are experimented on (Chin, 2014) .However, GMA raises a problem that is particularly difficult hence making ethical issues to arise whenever an animal is genetically engineered. To start with, GMA causes a number of Human problems. In this case, so many individuals often worry about the risks and the dangers that GMA poses to the human generation in regards to the health issues. In fact, it is argued that allergies have occurred in animals because of the GMA (Damron, 2013) .Another important ethical consideration has to do with the animal rights. So many people believe that this technology violates the rights of animals by manipulating animals in order to benefit humans. In essence, this technology makes animals to look like nothing other than human property that is supposed to be treated with no value. Hence it is important to note that, doing experiments on animals to benefit humans is violating the rights of the animals as well as their welfare. 

There are also a number of religious views that are against the GMA technology. In this case, they believe that God created the animals in the manner that they were supposed to be hence messing with them is termed as a sin (Chin, 2014) . Additionally, they also argued that altering the animals DNA is altering life itself. In other words, the religious communities believe that it is a sin to tamper with something that is created by God. On the other hand, religious views are also supporting the issue of transgenic since they believe that people own the animals so they have the right to alter them. In fact, they also believe that in creation, nothing is fixed and is open to modification hence justifying the issue of GMA technology. In simple terms, genetic engineering presents difficult and intriguing challenges for ethicists and the 21 st century scientists (Pinkert, 2014). It is until society will agree on what other beings are worthy of in terms of legal and moral respect when the debate and discussions on science and medicine will stop heating up. Hence it is important for the society to address and look for ways that will ensure that some of the ethical and social concerns as far as genetically engineered animals are concerned. 

GMA organisms contain modified or altered DNAs from other organisms. In this case, Because of the scientific alterations, I believe that GMA possesses certain traits that cannot be found in other species. Animals are being genetically engineered by scientists because I believe that more is understood in regards to traits and genes that control them. In other words, by establishing the genes that are able to manage beneficial traits of man animal, it is possible for them to precisely engineer them into another animal. Personally, the only concern I believe is important when it comes to GMA is their capacity to feel pain or suffer. In this case, if they do not feel any pain then there is nothing intrinsically wrong when it comes to manipulating them. Nevertheless, if this idea of not suffering is true, then I also believe that it is still wrong to manipulate life without taking into consideration the interests of the animal. The bottom line here is that animals should not just be beings that can be used as a means to fulfill the desired ends of humans. 

One of the reasons why so many people are confused about the employment of GMA revolves around the failure of the scientists to deal with social and ethical issues in a manner that can be deemed appropriate. Additionally, perceived complexity is also another factor that is hindering the development and progress of GMA regulations covering the release of GMA. In other words, I tend to believe that, as much as the scientists are trying as much as possible to deal with the challenges of controlling variable factors to ensure that the experiments are successful, one thing for sure is that they do not have a systematic framework that can help them deal with ethical dilemmas. In most cases, I believe that since scientists assert that issues of ethics are too complex to debate rationally hence making the discussion on GMA to be hampered by the fact that they fail to establish specific moral questions that need answers. 

In conclusion, it is clear that the management and employment of GM animals offer new challenges not only in regards to addressing ethical decisions and the welfare of the animals but also in regards to managing burgeoning numbers of the strains of animals effectively. Additionally, while this form of scientific technology has previously been employed in micro-organisms and in plants to help in agriculture production to help generate enzymes, it is argued that the potential application of these techniques to animals is also being taken into consideration in various research works. A number of international agencies such as World health organization and FAO have already gone ahead publishing some guidelines that can be employed in assessing animals safely alongside their derived products. 


Chin, J. W. (2014). Expanding and reprogramming the genetic code of cells and animals. Annual review of biochemistry , 83 , 379-408. 

Damron, W. S. (2013). Introduction to animal science . Pearson Higher Ed. 

Frewer, L. J., Kleter, G. A., Brennan, M., Coles, D., Fischer, A. R. H., Houdebine, L. M., ... & Salter, B. (2013). Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context. New biotechnology , 30 (5), 447-460. 

Pinkert, C. A. (2014). Transgenic animal technology: a laboratory handbook . Newnes. 

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 14). Gene Technology: The Process of Manipulating Genes in a Living Organism to Change Its Characteristics.


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