22 Dec 2022


How to Keep Your Lungs Healthy

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The lungs are two spongy organs, packed with air and situated on either side of the chest. It is the main organ that facilitates the removal of carbondioxide from blood and the diffusion of oxygen into the blood stream. Lungs are similar but they are not identical. This is facilitated by the gaseous exchange process that takes place in the air alveoli. Lungs constitute a part of the lower respiratory tract from the trachea. The groups of animals that possess lungs include mammals, birds, and reptiles. This paper provides an analysis of the functions of the lungs in the context different types of tissues and cell types that enable the performance of specific functions of the liver as an organ ( Gattinoni et. al., 2010). 

According to Gattinoni et. al. (2010), Lungs are separated into lobes of fissures, with three lobes on either side. The lobes are divided into smaller divisions that cannot be seen with naked eyes. The functioning of the lungs is achieved by the roles of tissues that are specialized to perform different functions. There are also specialized cells which enable the achievement of the specific function of the lungs. 

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First, the epithelial tissues are found on the surface of the alveoli and perform the function of facilitating gaseous exchange by the removal of carbondioxide and intake of oxygen. They are thin and flattened to allow a shorter distance between air on the alveoli and blood in the capillary. Epithelial tissues are also found in the bronchioles in columnar form but they do not contain cartilage rings ( Gattinoni et. al., 2010). 

Secondly, the connective tissues include cells below the epithelial linings of the lungs that are composed of protein fibbers such as collagen and fibrin. It provides links between epithelial cell tissues and muscles underneath. The muscle tissues are smooth muscles that are vascular and visceral and perform the function of causing constriction of the airwaves to prevent the entry of dust particles and other foreign substances into the lungs ( Hofmann, 2011) .The nervous tissues in the lungs originate from the autonomic nervous system which is stimulated under the influence of acetylcholine which causes the constriction of smooth muscles lining the bronchioli. Breathing occurs as due to nerve signals from the respiratory centers in the brainstem. 

There are specialized cells and tissues inside the lungs which facilitate the process of gaseous exchange. The alveoli are specialized single cells of the lungs that are located at the extreme end of the air tubes in the lungs. They are the real locations where gaseous interchange takes place and are approximately 600 million in the human body (Hui, 2010). They are grouped together to form alveolar sacs. Beneath them are capillary blood vessels that perform the function of absorbing oxygen from their surface and the release of carbon dioxide. 

Another specialized cell type is the respiratory epithelium that is a stratum of cells located in the passageways to the lungs that perform the function of producing mucus and movement of particles out of the airways. The epithelial cells in the trachea and the bronchi are specialized in the production of mucus which removes dust particles and bacteria that have been inhaled through the pharynx by a rhythmic beating action of the cilia. The ciliated cells are an other groups of specialized cells on the surface of the respiratory epithelium which use cilia to transfer mucus and a number of elements out of the respiratory tract (Hui, 2010). 

The goblet cells are specialized in the production of mucous that contains a number of compounds such as defensins and antiproteases that destroy microbes. Other specialized cells in the lungs are alveolar macrophages that are important in the achievement of immunity function of the lungs by removing deposited substances in the alveoli such as loose red blood cells that have been removed from the blood vessels. The basal cells are specialized in differentiating into other types of cells which act as replacements to damaged sections of the epithelial tissue (Hui, 2010). 

Hofmann (2011) points out that organs require a number of different types of specialized cells because it enables the formation of tissues which perform specific functions of tissues such as muscular movement of organs, protection of organs from infection with microbes, conduction of impulse, and replacement of worn out cells. If organs are composed of only one type of cells, it is not possible to achieve the above functions. The advantages associated with having specialized cells in an organ include improved impulse conduction due to the existence of nerve cells, an improved protection of organs from microbes and dust particles by the existence of ciliated epithelium, and facilitating gaseous exchange due to the existence of thin-walled ciliated cells in the lungs. 


Gattinoni, L., Protti, A., Caironi, P., & Carlesso, E. (2010). Ventilator-induced lung injury: the anatomical and physiological framework.   Critical care medicine ,   38 (10), S539-S548. 

Hofmann, W. (2011). Modelling inhaled particle deposition in the human lung—a review.   Journal of Aerosol Science ,   42 (10), 693-724. 

Hui, D. (2010). Pulmonary Medicine. In   Approach to Internal Medicine   (pp. 1-24). Springer US. 

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 16). How to Keep Your Lungs Healthy.


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