12 Jan 2023


How To Reduce Sensitivity To The Environment

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All living organisms in the face of the planet have shared characteristics or functions that are responsible for their survival. These features include organization, sensitivity to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, regulation, energy manufacture, and evolution. Every single organism has one or more cells that that are highly organized. Even for organisms that are single-celled, it is likely to find out that they are complex in functioning but are still orderly. Each cell is made up of atoms that build up the molecules. The molecules infuse to create cell organelles and other cellular substances. The same process works for the multi-cellular organisms although there is a slight difference. Similar cells in an organism will group to form tissues that will create organs (Songer and Mintzes, 1994). For instance, animals have different organs such as the liver and heart that are responsible for specific functions within the body. 

When it comes to sensitivity to the environment or stimuli, living things have diverse reactions toward specific elements in the environment. For instance, a plant which grows in a dark room will bend toward an opening where there is light. A process referred to as phototaxis. Similarly, minute bacteria can approach or evade chemicals in a process known as chemotaxis. Therefore, when organisms move towards specific stimuli, their reaction is considered positive, whereas, moving away is seen as a negative response. 

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Reproduction makes the third property for life. It is a significant process because living organism would go into extinction without reproduction. Both single-celled and multiple-celled organisms reproduce differently. The first category performs reproduction by doubling their DNA material. After that, there is an equal division of the DNA between the two sets of cells created. On the other hand, the multi-cellular organisms tend to form new individuals through the manufacture of reproductive germline cells. Reproduction ensures that the genes having DNA are transmitted to the offspring. That is why it is common for children to look exactly like their parents. Closely related to the property of reproduction are growth and development. All organisms are programmed according to their genetic makeup. The genes give instructions that command cellular growth and developments making the offspring have same characteristics as the parents. 

Organisms undergo some processes such as transportation of nutrients in plants, and blood flow in the body. These processes need to be regulated for them to function well. Hence, regulation is an important property in the life of an organism. Let us take an example of respiration during photosynthesis. It is a complex process that uses almost fifty-five steps to convert sugars into carbon dioxide and water. However, the steps can be simplified into two main processes. The first one involves a total regulation of the release of energy. When the energy is all released at once, the cells would burn down and die (Vogelstein and Kinzler, 2004). Hence, breaking down the process of respiration makes sure that the energy is given out in smaller quantities that are readily accommodated by the cells. In animals, regulation is essential because it helps to excrete the waste products from the body, transport energy, and cool the body among other processes. 

Cells can be equated to the behaviour of toddlers. To make them happy, you ensure that they get whatever they want. When it comes to cells, the process of homeostasis is fundamental in ensuring optimal functioning. Certain external and internal conditions such as temperatures and PH should be favourable. Since the conditions vary from time to time, organisms by the use of cells can maintain constancy through processes such as thermoregulation and homeostasis (Vogelstein and Kinzler, 2004). 

Metabolism is an important aspect of the life of a living organism. It is the primary source of energy in plants and animals. Plants get their source of energy through the process of photosynthesis whereas animals achieve this through the breakdown of food. Furthermore, individual organisms get energy directly from the sun and convert it into chemical energy. 

The last property for living organisms is evolution. It is a process that can explain the existence of diverse species in biology. Plants and animals have particular traits that contribute to their reproduction and adaptation in the environment. For instance, certain plants may produce poisonous substances that kill the predators and enhance their evolution. 

All these properties of living organisms lead back to the cells. They reproduce and create the different parts that are essential for the survival of living organisms. Cells comprise of two main categories; that is eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells can be either present in plants or animals. The difference between the two types is that eukaryotic cells have membranous organelles in the cytoplasm, a central membrane, and proteins in the chromosomes (Songer and Mintzes, 1994). Usually, the nucleus contains the genetic material and is the key controller of processes within the cell. It is where the replication and transcription of the DNA take place. On the other hand, the process of translation of mRNA occurs in the ribosomes, which is the location for protein synthesis. Within the cells is the endoplasmic reticulum, which can be either smooth or rough (Songer and Mintzes, 1994). The smooth ones perform lipid synthesis and maintaining metabolic processes such as detoxification since it lacks ribosomes. The rough ones are adapted for protein synthesis because they have ribosomes. Cell membranes in plants animals are important because they control the entrance and exit of substances thereby promoting an internal balance. In animals, the cell comprises of Golgi apparatus that helps in the transportation of materials. 

In plants, cellular respiration refers to a metabolic process that acquires energy from sugars as well as other organic molecules. The process will change the sugars into molecules for easy work in the plant cells. The primary molecule responsible for the whole process is known as the adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Usually, photosynthesis cannot transpire without respiration (Songer and Mintzes, 1994). Chloroplasts in plants trap sunlight make up energy through photosynthesis. The two processes are corresponding halves of the carbon dioxide and sugars cycle. They are quite alike but with different reaction processes. The possible energy substance of sugars (CH2O) is more than carbon dioxide (CO2). The variation exists in the participation of light energy through photosynthesis. Energy kept in carbohydrates is regained by respiration that simplifies the sugars into carbon dioxide and water. During the two processes, some of the energy is released into the atmosphere while the rest are stored in forms of molecules such as ATP. The saved energy is of importance as it is used to support other cellular functions as well as reproduction. Cells usually reproduce via two processes namely mitosis and meiosis. The difference between these two courses is that meiosis takes place only in sex cells and mitosis in the rest of the cells (Songer and Mintzes, 1994). It is right to state that meiosis is why human species can sexually reproduce. 

According to Mendel’s law, the nature of inheritance depends on the acquisition of genes from parent to offspring generation. The law includes important factors such as dominance, segregation, and independent assortment. In the principle of segregation, two alleles separate to create gametes. On the other hand, in the independent assortment, genes from different traits differentiate independently during the formation of gametes. The traits are dispensed with chromosomes, which carry DNA (Vogelstein and Kinzler, 2004). The strands of DNA are condensed into chromatin for easy transportation from parents to offspring. 

Mutations in DNA can cause serious health problems such as cancer. When the cells multiply in the nucleus without proper control, they can lead to the formation of tumors. Cancer cells usually possess this characteristic, which usually takes place in the genetic stage (Vogelstein and Kinzler, 2004). When cancer leaves the original cell, it has the potential of spreading so fast hence, becoming a threat to major organs in the body. However, contemporary scientists have come up with a way to reduce the risk of cancer spread through gene control. It specifically targets the mutations in the cancer cells by killing those using drugs. It is different from chemotherapy that treats all the cells in the body. 


Songer, C. J., & Mintzes, J. J,. (1994). Understanding cellular respiration: An analysis of conceptual change in college biology. Journal of Research in Science Teaching , 31 (6), 621-637. 

Vogelstein, B., & Kinzler, K. W,. (2004). Cancer genes and the pathways they control. Nature medicine , 10 (8) 789-799 

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 15). How To Reduce Sensitivity To The Environment.


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