Research Question: Accessibility issues in e-government services
Leist, E., & Smith, D. (2014, August). Accessibility Issues in E-government. In International Conference on Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective (pp. 15-25). Springer, Cham.
The researchers conducted two sets of experiment to determine issues affecting the accessibility of electronic government. The first experiment assessed compliance standards and accessibility of e-government sites in the United Kingdom with the second experiment involving analysis of websites from other nations across Europe. The outcome highlights major compliance standards and accessibility differences between countries.
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List of terms: e-government, accessibility, standards, exclusion
The analysis offers valuable insight into some of the factors influencing the accessibility of e-government services. It is a key resource because it examines the subject matter from two angles – accessibility issues in a country and comparing them to other nations. Elements such as usability of the sites for certain demographics such as older people will be useful in developing the study.
“The satisfaction ratings for e-government services are generally lower than for commercial services” (p. 16)
“A widely recognized issue in e-government is the difficulty that many users have in finding information, which is organized by department, rather than by function.” (p. 16)
“Particularly important for older people, many of whom have reduced visual acuity, loss of fine motor control and other disabilities that make it more difficult to deal with poorly designed websites” (p. 18)
Al-Faries, A., Al-Khalifa, H. S., Al-Razgan, M. S., & Al-Duwais, M. (2013, October). Evaluating the accessibility and usability of top Saudi e-government services. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (pp. 60-63).
The research evaluates top government sites in Saudi Arabia based on the recommendations of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 to determine accessibility and usability issues. The investigation discovers that almost none of the Saudi government sites adheres to the recommendations of the WCAG 2.0. The impact this has on ordinary citizens is that it restricts access to crucial government services meant for all.
List of terms: e-government, usability, accessibility, e-services, WCAG 2.0, Saudi Arabia
This empirical resource lays out vital knowledge of the subject matter. The argument that a majority of government websites do not comply with either local and international accessibility and usability standards is highly agreeable to. The paper provides a sufficient explanation for why many people find government services dissatisfactory. As it will help enhance the literature review for the study.
“E-government services are usually situated in web forms, such as registration forms to subscribe to services or data input forms to search or inquire about information.” (p. 60)
“The evaluation of the compatibility guideline, which ensures maximum compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies, indicates that both Parsing (SC 4.1.1) and names, Roles and Values (SC 4.1.2) are highly violated at 85% and 70% consecutively.” (p. 62)
“Although some of the accessibility guidelines were satisfied by the services, the evaluation clearly indicates that almost none of the evaluated services fully comply with WCAG 2.0. guidelines” (p. 63)
Sarker, M. N. I., Wu, M., & Hossin, M. A. (2018, May). Smart governance through bigdata: Digital transformation of public agencies. In 2018 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Big Data (ICAIBD) (pp. 62-70). IEEE.
The study explores the suitability and applicability of big data technologies for smart governance in public agencies. The researchers view big data as a significant opportunity in shifting governance from the traditional approach to smart governance. The article suggests that it would help public agencies identify issues, mitigate threats, and make proper decisions thereby improving service delivery. However, there are issues such as privacy, technology, and the skills involved.
List of terms: big data, public administration, governance, smart government, digital.
An exciting aspect of the article is that it describes the concept of big data and its role in improving public service delivery. The idea that big data can transform traditional governance to modern smart governance that is a more effective and efficient way to public governance and service delivery is great. For that reason, knowledge from the article will be used for the ideation of e-governance in the research.
“Big data is a high volume, high velocity and high variety of information which usually cost-effective and innovative for increasing insight, proper decision making and maximum output” (p. 64)
“It is not only useful for public sector organizations like government actors, cities, and citizens but also health care, and social media” (p. 65).
“every government agency should adopt the big data technology for reducing corruption, threat and challenges and increasing efficiency, accountability and transparency which will help to become themselves transparent, accountable and hassle-free public agencies” (p. 69)
Alawneh, A., Al-Refai, H., & Batiha, K. (2013). Measuring user satisfaction from e-Government services: Lessons from Jordan. Government Information Quarterly , 30 (3), 277-288.
The paper begins by clarifying that the satisfaction of users is critical for the continuity of e-government services and also a factor in the success or failure of public projects. A detailed questionnaire was used to gather data from 206 participants. The analyzed data revealed five factors that affect satisfaction – security and privacy, accessibility, trust, awareness, and quality of the e-government portal. Generally, it was found that the satisfaction level was below average.
List of terms: e-government, satisfaction, accessibility, security, privacy, quality, trust, Jordan.
The article sheds light on the extent to which citizens are satisfied with their e-government platforms. The report does not only confirm the general feeling that people are often dissatisfied with their respective government web platforms but it also justifies the opinion and illustrates factors involved with the dissatisfaction.
“The identi ﬁ ed ﬁ ve factors are: security and privacy of the Jordan e-Government portal, trust with the Jordan e-Government portal, accessibility to the Jordan e-Government portal, awareness of public services on the Jordan e-Government Portal and quality of public services with the Jordan e-Government portal” (p. 286)
“In order to increase citizen satisfaction, e-Government authorities need to develop G2C e-Government portals with good accessibility capabilities, awareness aspects, and service quality measures” (p. 286)
“Security and Privacy factor does not contribute signiﬁcantly to the achievement of e-Satisfaction level; it explains insigniﬁcantly 9% of the change in the e-Satisfaction level” (p. 285)
Serra, L. C., Carvalho, L. P., Ferreira, L. P., Vaz, J. B. S., & Freire, A. P. (2015). Accessibility evaluation of e-government mobile applications in Brazil. Procedia Computer Science , 67 , 348-357.
The study evaluates the accessibility of the use of mobile e-government applications in Brazil based on the recommendations of the WCAG 2.0. The paper discovers that there are numerous accessibility issues as far as the use of mobile apps on Android and iOS operating systems are concerned. For example, navigation, accessibility labels, color contrast, and meaningful sequence lacked in most applications.
List of terms: accessibility, mobile applications, e-government, m-government
The unique approach the article adopts is important in understanding accessibility issues in electronic government services. Mobile apps are massively attracting the attention of many public service institutions interested in delivering services efficiently and effectively. Therefore, the information the article provides will be valuable to further the topic of the research.
“E-government corresponds to the use of ICTs, particularly the Internet, as a tool to promote better governance to answer to citizens’ needs” (p. 349)
“Another important finding of the study was the lack of help features in most applications for data entry in mobile applications” (p. 356)
“The use of this adapted version showed that many important accessibility issues could be uncovered by using such guidelines after the adaptions, considering specific issues such as the use of gestures instead of keyboard interaction.” (p. 356)