11 Jan 2023


Module 6 Annotated Bibliography

Format: APA

Academic level: University

Paper type: Essay (Any Type)

Words: 977

Pages: 2

Downloads: 0

Research Question: Accessibility issues in e-government services 

Leist, E., & Smith, D. (2014, August). Accessibility Issues in E-government. In  International Conference on Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective  (pp. 15-25). Springer, Cham. 

The researchers conducted two sets of experiment to determine issues affecting the accessibility of electronic government. The first experiment assessed compliance standards and accessibility of e-government sites in the United Kingdom with the second experiment involving analysis of websites from other nations across Europe. The outcome highlights major compliance standards and accessibility differences between countries.

It’s time to jumpstart your paper!

Delegate your assignment to our experts and they will do the rest.

Get custom essay

List of terms: e-government, accessibility, standards, exclusion

The analysis offers valuable insight into some of the factors influencing the accessibility of e-government services. It is a key resource because it examines the subject matter from two angles – accessibility issues in a country and comparing them to other nations. Elements such as usability of the sites for certain demographics such as older people will be useful in developing the study. 

“The satisfaction ratings for e-government services are generally lower than for commercial services” (p. 16)

“A widely recognized issue in e-government is the difficulty that many users have in finding information, which is organized by department, rather than by function.” (p. 16)

“Particularly important for older people, many of whom have reduced visual acuity, loss of fine motor control and other disabilities that make it more difficult to deal with poorly designed websites” (p. 18)

Al-Faries, A., Al-Khalifa, H. S., Al-Razgan, M. S., & Al-Duwais, M. (2013, October). Evaluating the accessibility and usability of top Saudi e-government services. In  Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance  (pp. 60-63). 

The research evaluates top government sites in Saudi Arabia based on the recommendations of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 to determine accessibility and usability issues. The investigation discovers that almost none of the Saudi government sites adheres to the recommendations of the WCAG 2.0. The impact this has on ordinary citizens is that it restricts access to crucial government services meant for all.

List of terms: e-government, usability, accessibility, e-services, WCAG 2.0, Saudi Arabia

This empirical resource lays out vital knowledge of the subject matter. The argument that a majority of government websites do not comply with either local and international accessibility and usability standards is highly agreeable to. The paper provides a sufficient explanation for why many people find government services dissatisfactory. As it will help enhance the literature review for the study. 

“E-government services are usually situated in web forms, such as registration forms to subscribe to services or data input forms to search or inquire about information.” (p. 60)

“The evaluation of the compatibility guideline, which ensures maximum compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies, indicates that both Parsing (SC 4.1.1) and names, Roles and Values (SC 4.1.2) are highly violated at 85% and 70% consecutively.” (p. 62)

“Although some of the accessibility guidelines were satisfied by the services, the evaluation clearly indicates that almost none of the evaluated services fully comply with WCAG 2.0. guidelines” (p. 63)

Sarker, M. N. I., Wu, M., & Hossin, M. A. (2018, May). Smart governance through bigdata: Digital transformation of public agencies. In  2018 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Big Data (ICAIBD)  (pp. 62-70). IEEE. 

The study explores the suitability and applicability of big data technologies for smart governance in public agencies. The researchers view big data as a significant opportunity in shifting governance from the traditional approach to smart governance. The article suggests that it would help public agencies identify issues, mitigate threats, and make proper decisions thereby improving service delivery. However, there are issues such as privacy, technology, and the skills involved.

List of terms: big data, public administration, governance, smart government, digital.

An exciting aspect of the article is that it describes the concept of big data and its role in improving public service delivery. The idea that big data can transform traditional governance to modern smart governance that is a more effective and efficient way to public governance and service delivery is great. For that reason, knowledge from the article will be used for the ideation of e-governance in the research. 

“Big data is a high volume, high velocity and high variety of information which usually cost-effective and innovative for increasing insight, proper decision making and maximum output” (p. 64)

“It is not only useful for public sector organizations like government actors, cities, and citizens but also health care, and social media” (p. 65).

“every government agency should adopt the big data technology for reducing corruption, threat and challenges and increasing efficiency, accountability and transparency which will help to become themselves transparent, accountable and hassle-free public agencies” (p. 69)

Alawneh, A., Al-Refai, H., & Batiha, K. (2013). Measuring user satisfaction from e-Government services: Lessons from Jordan.  Government Information Quarterly 30 (3), 277-288. 

The paper begins by clarifying that the satisfaction of users is critical for the continuity of e-government services and also a factor in the success or failure of public projects. A detailed questionnaire was used to gather data from 206 participants. The analyzed data revealed five factors that affect satisfaction – security and privacy, accessibility, trust, awareness, and quality of the e-government portal. Generally, it was found that the satisfaction level was below average.

List of terms: e-government, satisfaction, accessibility, security, privacy, quality, trust, Jordan.

The article sheds light on the extent to which citizens are satisfied with their e-government platforms. The report does not only confirm the general feeling that people are often dissatisfied with their respective government web platforms but it also justifies the opinion and illustrates factors involved with the dissatisfaction. 

“The identi fi ed fi ve factors are: security and privacy of the Jordan e-Government portal, trust with the Jordan e-Government portal, accessibility to the Jordan e-Government portal, awareness of public services on the Jordan e-Government Portal and quality of public services with the Jordan e-Government portal” (p. 286)

“In order to increase citizen satisfaction, e-Government authorities need to develop G2C e-Government portals with good accessibility capabilities, awareness aspects, and service quality measures” (p. 286)

“Security and Privacy factor does not contribute significantly to the achievement of e-Satisfaction level; it explains insignificantly 9% of the change in the e-Satisfaction level” (p. 285)

Serra, L. C., Carvalho, L. P., Ferreira, L. P., Vaz, J. B. S., & Freire, A. P. (2015). Accessibility evaluation of e-government mobile applications in Brazil.  Procedia Computer Science 67 , 348-357. 

The study evaluates the accessibility of the use of mobile e-government applications in Brazil based on the recommendations of the WCAG 2.0. The paper discovers that there are numerous accessibility issues as far as the use of mobile apps on Android and iOS operating systems are concerned. For example, navigation, accessibility labels, color contrast, and meaningful sequence lacked in most applications.

List of terms: accessibility, mobile applications, e-government, m-government

The unique approach the article adopts is important in understanding accessibility issues in electronic government services. Mobile apps are massively attracting the attention of many public service institutions interested in delivering services efficiently and effectively. Therefore, the information the article provides will be valuable to further the topic of the research. 

“E-government corresponds to the use of ICTs, particularly the Internet, as a tool to promote better governance to answer to citizens’ needs” (p. 349)

“Another important finding of the study was the lack of help features in most applications for data entry in mobile applications” (p. 356)

“The use of this adapted version showed that many important accessibility issues could be uncovered by using such guidelines after the adaptions, considering specific issues such as the use of gestures instead of keyboard interaction.” (p. 356)

Cite this page

Select style:


StudyBounty. (2023, September 17). Module 6 Annotated Bibliography.


Related essays

We post free essay examples for college on a regular basis. Stay in the know!

17 Sep 2023

The Downfalls of Oedipus and Othello

The Downfalls of Oedipus and Othello The downfall of great men in literature appears to follow dramatic events either forged by the author as the will of the gods or the consequence of their actions. Whether the...

Words: 1402

Pages: 5

Views: 477

17 Sep 2023

Why I Want To Become a Physician

A physician is a person who practices medicine dealing with treating illnesses, promoting and maintaining better health status through research and diagnosis. I want to become a physician for several reasons which...

Words: 270

Pages: 1

Views: 86

17 Sep 2023

The Perception of Death in the Play "Everyman"

Introduction Death is evident in the play Everyman in multiple perspective and the author describes it in different scenes. Thesis: The essay examines the perception of death in the play and how it influences...

Words: 1464

Pages: 5

Views: 98

17 Sep 2023

How to Reverse Chronic Pain in 5 Simple Steps

Summary Chronic pains are becoming very common in modern days. They are often caused by injuries, illnesses, surgery, or accidents. Unlike the days in the past, more people are starting to experience these...

Words: 1075

Pages: 4

Views: 72

17 Sep 2023

“Boyz n the Hood” director and Auteur Theory paper

The Auteur Theory is a cinematic aspect that explains how the film director is the "author" of the film. The theory explains that artists who apply intense stylistic control over their craft use certain features like...

Words: 847

Pages: 3

Views: 97

17 Sep 2023

Free College and University Education in the United Kingdom

In following persuasive essay on whether the colleges and university education should be free, we focus on the following scholarly sources; Pike's journal (2005) that talks of ‘ the first and second generation...

Words: 690

Pages: 2

Views: 181


Running out of time?

Entrust your assignment to proficient writers and receive TOP-quality paper before the deadline is over.