The principles of case study analysis that O’Rourke (2007) writes about are applied in this particular paper.
Which receptor neuron is responsible for sending information from her finger to her peripheral nervous system?
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The neuron responsible for sending information to the peripheral nervous system from the fingers the fingers after the heat is the sensory neurons. Sensory organs are responsible for sending information about the feelings of the body to the brain and spinal cord. It is also vital to note that the sensory division of the peripheral nervous system normally transports the sensory information to the central nervous system (Biology Reference, 2016). Some of the senses from which information is carried to the CNS include touch, smell, hearing, taste and sight.
Is this receptor neuron, an afferent or efferent neuron?
This is an afferent neuron that is responsible for the sensation of a stimulus such as heat and sending information about it to the central nervous system (Biology Reference, 2016).
Explain where the information from the receptor neuron is sent and how does it result in Amy moving her finger away from the stove.
The receptor neurons normally send this information to the CNS. The sensory neurons normally send information gathered by the sensory organs like eyes, ears, skin and the noses from the surrounding to the CNS. This kind of information includes pain, heat, pressure, scent, sound and vision. The receptors of the sensory neurons instantly send the sensed information to the central nervous system before signals are then conveyed to the brain for reaction to the specific stimulus (Biology Reference, 2016). The reaction signal is send by the efferent neuron. The somatic motor branch normally transports the voluntary commands to the skeletal muscles for the responsive movement like taking the hands off the heated stove because of the pain.
How many neurons are typically involved in this response? What are the names of these neurons?
Three neurons are involved in this particular response. The first two neurons involved are the afferent and efferent ones. However, since they are not long enough to reach the brain from the toe, a third neuron known as the association neuron is involved; whose main role is forming the connection between the neurons (Biology Reference, 2016).
Evolutionarily, why do you think the human body has this system in place?
The human body contains this system for the purpose of adaptation to the environment and protection from harmful environmental conditions.
What might happen if we did not have this response?
Without this response, human beings could not detect harmful feelings like from heat and bad smells. Consequently, we would be harmed by things in the environment without knowing.
Case study 2
What is Early Onset Parkinson’s disease?
Onset Parkinson’s disease is a progressive health problem that affects the central nervous system. This disease is normally caused by the deficiency in cells within the region of the brain that releases dopamine. Notably, most victims of this disease are usually diagnosed while they are in their age of early 60s. If it is a case of early Onset Parkinson’s disease, it is noted before one gets to the age of 50 years.
What specific cell type is affected in Parkinson’s disease?
The nerve cells are the ones affected by this Onset Parkinson’s disease. It involves the damage or simply loss of nerve cells in the Substantia nigra region of the brain. It is the brain area necessary for learning as well as movement.
What is dopamine? What effects does dopamine have on the body?
Dopamine is a neuro-transmitter, which is involved in many things done by the body like movement and pleasure. It is ensures there is smooth movement of the muscles of the body. A reduction in the level of dopamine makes it impossible for the brain to effectively communicate with the muscles (Biology Reference, 2016). This leads to the Onset Parkinson’s disease condition.
Explain the structure of a synapse and why Glen’s neurologist would prescribe him a dopamine agonist?
Neuron cells can be stimulated electrically since it is through the same method that they communicate with the other cells of the body. The axon links and relays electrical signals between a neuron and other cells. As a neuro-transmitter, scientists have established a chemical that is responsible for sending messages between the brain and various body cells. Therefore, Glen’s neurologist would prescribe a dopamine agonist to boost this communication between the brain and other body cells.
Would you advise his children to have genetic testing performed to determine if they also carry the disease mutation? Why or why not?
Yes, I would advise that his children get a genetic test to find out if they also have the disease inherited genetically. The reason is that Glen has an autosomal dominant mutation within the SNCA gene, which is linked to the early Onset Parkinson’s disease. It is, therefore, quite likely that the children also have this disease.
Case study 3
What is MS?
MS refers to a disease that causes the improper communication between the central nervous system and other body parts (Study.com, 2016).
Is MS a disease of the central or peripheral nervous system?
MS is a disease of the central nervous system.
What is the main cell structure affected in MS?
The main cell structure affected in MS disease is the nerve cells, where electrical conduction is impaired making the nervous system to be functionless.
How is the action potential of a neuron affected in MS?
Electrical communication between the nervous system and the body cells is impaired (Study.com, 2016). The first problem that then arises is muscle weakness and loss of movement as a result of the difficulty in balance and co-ordination. The body goes into a state of paralysis.
The origins of MS are not clear. What do scientists hypothesize to be the causes of MS?
Scientists postulate that auto-immune problems, where the body attacks itself, caused by viruses and genetic factors are the cause of MS (Study.com, 2016).
Biology Reference (2016). Peripheral Nervous System . Retrieved February 11, 2017 from http://www.biologyreference.com/Oc-Ph/Peripheral-Nervous-System.html.
O’Rourke, James S. (2007). Management communication: A case-analysis approach . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Study.com (2016). Types of Neurons: Sensory, Afferent, Motor, Efferent & More . Retrieved February 11, 2017 from https://study.com/academy/lesson/types-of-neurons-sensory-afferent-motor-efferent-more.html.