5 Nov 2022


Respiratory System Anatomy and Physiology

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Academic level: College

Paper type: Coursework

Words: 350

Pages: 1

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How an oxygen module enters the body and travels to the alveolar-capillary beds 

The human breathing system occurs through the nose and mouth and entails oxygen intake into the human blood cells through the windpipe to the bronchi and then to the alveoli and exhaling carbon dioxide from the system. Once the air enters the body through the nose, it moves to the air sacs, where it crosses through the sacs' thin membrane into the blood capillaries ( Patwa & Shah, 2015) . The oxygen is transported to various blood cells through Haemoglobin, the red-colored component of the blood. The heart, through arteries, takes the role of pumping the blood throughout the body, a process known as blood circulation. Oxygen-rich blood is transported from the lungs to the heart for circulation, while oxygen-rich in carbon dioxide is transported to the lungs from the heart for expulsion from the body. 

Conversion of Food into a bolus and Processing 

Intake of food takes place through the mouth by a process known as ingestion. The food begins by the chewing of food material to break it into particles that can easily travel down the human throat and digestive system as a bolus ( Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Johnson & Grundy 2017) . The bolus is transported through the esophagus into the stomach for gastric digestion. In the stomach, food is chemically broken down into particles easily absorbed into the human blood system for transportation to various cells. Waste material that the body is not needed is also formed during this process and is taken down to the large intestines and eventually expelled from the body. 

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How Histological Features of the Breathing and Digestive Systems Contribute to their Proper Functioning 

The human stomach has an epithelium lining and a gastric pit that is made up of mucous cells. The mucus produced by these cells coupled with the stomach's texture, the small and large intestines, and acid and enzymes help break down food particles into small particles that can be absorbed into the bloodstream ( Karasov & Douglas, 2016). The trachea has similar features in that it has an epithelium and a membrane that produces mucus which plays the role of trapping dust particles, ensuring that the air that goes in is clean. 


Greenwood-Van Meerveld B, Johnson AC, Grundy D. (2017). Gastrointestinal Physiology and 

Function. Handbook. DOI: 10.1007/164_2016_118. PMID: 28176047 

Karasov, W. H., & Douglas, A. E. (2016). Comparative digestive physiology.  Comprehensive Physiology 3 (2), 741–783. https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c110054 

Patwa, A., & Shah, A. (2015). Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to 

anesthesia.  Indian journal of anesthesia 59 (9), 533–541. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019- 5049.165849 

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StudyBounty. (2023, September 16). Respiratory System Anatomy and Physiology .


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