5 Oct 2022


What is Human Security?

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Academic level: College

Paper type: Essay (Any Type)

Words: 1820

Pages: 3

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Human insecurity is associated with threats that could be involving war, displacement of people or genocide. Human security on the other hand is said to be freedom from violence or any fear of violence by people that may affect their normal daily activities. The traditional notion of the national security argues that the best reference of security should be by considering the individuals and not the whole state. This is because the individual security is further translated to the state and therefore dealing with the basic security is the best way for a nation. 

Importance of the topic to interest a significant policy and practitioner audience 

The case study addresses the lessons of Mumbai in a terrorist attack on 26 th November 2008 where 172 people ended up being killed ( Apte & Hoopla digital, 2013). This, however, was not the first significant attack because in July 2006 Mumbai had encountered yet another bombing killing 209 people ( Apte & Hoopla digital, 2013) . The trend being registered lately has many cases of terrorist attack, and therefore the topic under discussion in the case study is very important. It goes with the current times that we are living in where the level of insecurity is very high and that people have to keep watching their back. Most of the nations have registered cases of terrorist attack, and therefore the tone is common all over the world, and this has led to nations joining hands and coming up with collaborative forces to handle the issue. The case study analyses the operational and the tactical features and the technological capabilities that are applied to the terrorists especially in the case of Mumbai as some of the events can be compared to the situations being encountered. 

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The prolonged nature of such a terrorist attack in most cases intrigues fear to the citizens and therefore the reaction of the security bodies when it comes to such cases become very important. In Mumbai, the attack took 60 hours, and therefore the attack mesmerized the whole of India leaving a mark in their lives ( Apte & Hoopla digital, 2013). 

The levels of attacked that are realized are highly planned, and some of them take even years before execution. The attack in Mumbai left most wondering whether the attack was based on the past experiences or the innovations of the terrorist group. Response to attacks is also very critical and the essay analyses the response tactics employed by the Indian security forces after the terrorist attack ( Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2009) . It is always important for the nation or rather the security bodies to prove to its citizens that they are safe and therefore a response to emergencies or situations like this involving attacks brings confidence to the citizens and promote their trust on capabilities of their security forces. 

A Terrorist attack is also critical and affects the normal activities and therefore slowing down its growth and development. The Mumbai attack affected the Indian strategies, Pakistan, and the general international communities as the flow of the activities and the business environment were affected directly. The case study analyses the lessons learned from the attack as it is always good for a nation to learn and make some adjustments once they come out of such a tragedy as a defensive mechanism in future since failure to do so increase chances of encountering such a situation in future. Most of the nations that have encountered security threats or terrorists attack reinforce their security. 

The topic discussed here, therefore, is important in that the issues are real and they have been happening to different starts or nations. Most of the nations have had to transform their security agencies through enforcements and setting standards that make sure that such situations are prevented or dealt with accordingly if they arise 

Contribution of the case to the development of human security as a professional, academic field or general public interest 

The case study is helpful in developing a human security in the professional and academic field as this is a key point when dealing with the public interest. The case study looks at the issues that are highly considered by the terrorists when laying down their attack plans and therefore enable the security bodies to reinforce and boost security in such areas. Mumbai it is said to be India's commercial and entertainment center ( Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2009) . This, therefore, means that there is a huge circulation of money as living standards there are high and that most of the population in Mumbai is wealthy. This, therefore, means that illegal gang and terrorists have it as a target to execute their mission and get away with what they want and most likely being revenge and destruction mission to cripple the economy. 

The attack on such a place is likely to target foreigners as the terrorist are always on the move to prove that the government is not in a position to protect its people and therefore a move to target a place highly concentrated and that runs the economy of the nation is key to them. Attacking the capitals or the areas that have an economic impact on the nation’s revenue would affect the image of the nation in the outside world and therefore affecting the nation's relationship with others regarding investments and also nation to nation business. These facts become important for the government and the security agencies in planning and enhancing security as they can prioritize some areas that would draw them back if hit and also that would affect the economy of the nation. 

The case study can be helpful in the academic setup as it sets the basis for understanding the criteria used by terrorists in determining their target areas and the effects they attacks have on the nation and the world community. Such points are useful in learning the effects of such attacks on the economy of the nation and the whole world as a whole in the case of such attacks happening. This knowledge also acts as a basis in educating the strategic people on how to spread risk across different investments or areas in a country and avoid chances of facing massive losses in case there are terrorist attacks or threats to the economy. 

Conflict resolution is also necessary in such a case, and for academic purposes, the student's get to know the best ways to deal with such situation or how to restore peace in the nation when it is faced with such an attack or any other activity that destabilizes the national peace. Trauma follows an attack and helping the people deal with these needs a study of such situation and understanding of what people go through so as to create a basis on the issues that follow and hence develop a process towards healing and helping people recover. 

Value of the case study with time distance from the event and future interests attached to it 

Setting a base and a point of reference in future about an event or a case that happened so as to act as a learning tool to prevent such from happening is one of the main goals of any study. The case study is very intensive and categorical on the terrorist attack in Mumbai and the effects it had on the Indian people as well as the whole community world ( Thomas, 2016). The lessons learned from the event are helpful in any nation as the cases of terrorist attacks have registered an increase in the different nation and the criteria or the pattern used is unpredictable, and hence this case study is of importance to everyone. Comparison of different attacks and in different nations and the ways the security bodies handled the outcome is also an important future point of reference. The case study provides a basis as it scrutinizes the steps the terrorist attacks followed in executing the attack. The outcome of the attack and how it affected the nation as well as the remedies or the steps taken by the relevant bodies in reacting and recovering from the shock are important points of reference. This, therefore, becomes a very important tool of study by different nations at risk of encountering such situation as they have the tips on how to handle the situation without wasting time and therefore reduce the overall damage. Most of the time the recovery process takes years, and in a nation, if the process is delayed there are huge losses incurred as the nation’s economy is always at risk affecting the growth and development of a nation. 

How the author presents her argument clearly, concisely and persuasively 

The author has chronologically presented all the moves the terrorists made and all the tactics they used in the attack. This makes it a step by step case and therefore bringing the event out clearly. It starts by saying how the terrorists planned the whole attack. The terrorists are said to have had a detailed map of the hotel's layout, and therefore navigation and the attack was well calculated. The authorities say that a terrorist arrested earlier was found in possession of drawings which were targets for the attack and this shows that the planning went way earlier before the authorities could even think of it. The major targets are well outlaid in the case study being the Taj Hotel and Bombay Stock Exchange being identified by the terrorists a year ago, therefore, giving the terrorists ample time to plan. 

The case also explains the route used by the terrorists to access Mumbai through the sea where they attacked an Indian fishing trawler and murdered all the crew leaving only the captain and using him to access Mumbai. The route is said to be strategic as the terrorists avoided the security checks and therefore entering the center of the town where is made them easier to reach the target at ease. The terrorist also was able to hide their identity and therefore making it hard to trace them or their origin with only a few being identified as Pakistan youth in their early 20s ( Thomas, 2016). The way the terrorists were armed also explains that they were ready for the attack as they had deadly weapons. This enables the attackers to plan and attack different target spots at the same time and therefore becoming a challenge for the security forces to stop them. The case explains the flares or the weaknesses the Indian government faced when handling the attack. It says that the government had gaps in coastal surveillance, inadequate or target hardening, response timing problems, inadequate counterterrorism training and equipment of the local police, intelligence failures, limitations on the fire and the emergency services departments, incomplete execution response protocol, flawed hostage rescue plan and poor strategic communication plans and this being the major issues that prolonged the event or made it have dire consequences ( Thomas, 2016). 

The author goes into finer details of the attack and therefore making sure that the event is clearly understood step by step. She presents the effects the attack had on all the stakeholders or the different nations that had a link with India. Indians economic development plan and the whole economy first declined due to the huge economic losses encountered during the attack. The relationship between partisan and the Indian become worse since the terrorists were linked with Pakistan and this flew even to the outside world and other countries also started having a negative view towards the country. 


Apte, P. M., & Hoopla digital. (2013). Urban growth strategies: Mumbai lessons . United States: Leadstart Publishing Pvt Ltd. 

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. (2009). The terrorist attack on Mumbai . Toronto ON: Author. 

Thomas, R. G. (2016). Indian security policy . Place of publication not identified: Princeton University Pres. 

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