2 Jun 2022


Workplace Gender and Diversity

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Sometimes, the workplace has been identified as an inhospitable environment for women as a result of the several forms of available gender equalities. Some instances of how discrimination in workplace negatively impact earnings, as well as opportunities for women, include the gender remuneration gap, the shortage of females’ leadership alongside the extensive time needed for women against men to develop in their professions (Stamarski and Hing, 2015). Workplace discrimination adds to the lower socio-economic status of women. Most important, such prejudice against females greatly can be due to anthropological resources policies alongside human resources associated decision-making. Moreover, when workers share with managerial decision makers throughout practices of human resources, or when employees are told the results of human resources allied decisions, they are likely to undergo individual judgment in various ways. Both the objective demerits of lower wages, openings at work and status alongside the biased involvements of being stigmatized , impact females’ physical and psychological stress, physical and mental health, managerial commitment and job satisfaction, and eventually their performance (O’Brien et al. 2015). 

The following paragraphs will delineate the form of discrimination within the human resources guidelines, resolution and their implementation. Further, the paper will examine the foundations of the mentioned judgment in the workplace. In the part of discrimination kin human resources associated practices, including human resources policy, decision-making and their implementation, the difference amid HR policy, HR-associated decision making alongside HR implementation and their associations with each one as asserted by Hoobler et al .(2014). Gender disparities in HR policy are a type of established prejudice. The paper will examine the evidence of established disparities against females within the HR policies outlined to establish personnel selection, evaluation of performance and advancements. In disparity, judgment in HR-associated resolutions alongside their implementation can emanate from managerial decision makers’ unfair reactions. Thus, it is a type of judgment. Lastly, the paper will present evidence of personal prejudice against females by managerial decision-makers in human resources associated with arriving at a conclusion as well as in the implementation of HR policies. The following exempts assess the root causes of gender prejudice in human resources policies, decision making 

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Consequence of Managerial Structures, Procedures, alongside Practices on HR Guidelines 

Motivated by the work of Farndale and Sanders (2017) the study suggests that managerial structures and procedures alongside practices that include leadership, strategy, structure, HR policy and climate are linked and can lead to discrimination. Consequently, gender inequalities in every component have the possibility of affecting others, resulting in a self-emphasizing scheme that can increase established prejudice across the business and that may lead to prejudice in HR policies, conclusions as well as implementation. The relationships between gender disparities in the structure, procedures and practices of an organization and judgment in human resources practices may be bidirectional as stated by Farndale and Sanders (2017). Thus, human resources practices can lead to differences in gender in managerial structures, procedure and practices. 

To begin , the study will focus on contextual factor to leadership. Leadership is a process where a person influences others to strive for organizational goals. Leaders are determined as well as they communicate the priorities of an organization to the employees of business. Leaders are significant as they as they influence the other structures, procedures and performance of the organization (Gentry et al. 2014). Particularly, leaders set culture, policy, strategy as well as are role models for interaction. A major way in which established gender disparity in leadership prevails is under-representation of females than men, specifically when females are represented well at organizational lower levels. 

Women under-representation in leadership can be increased definitely since the gender of managerial leaders influences the extent, to which there is the judgment of gender and policies supporting gender including diversity of gender compassionate environment within the corporate. Stamarski and Hing (2015) believe that members of the organization can observe that the climate for females is optimistic when females hold major ranks in the business. Particularly, women’s presence in major ranks acts as a vibrant signal showing that the institution value and strengthens the diversity of gender. Similarly, sectors that have fewer women key ranking executives have a higher gender wage difference. Moreover, women who are working with male supervisor observe less support of organization than those working with a female supervisor. Further, women working in units that are led by males report undergoing more gender prejudice than those working in departments headed by females. Some of the effects can be due to a similar-to-me preference, where leaders institute systems that reward as well as promote persons like them, thus leading to judgment toward women especially when front-runners are highly men. Therefore, gender disparities in leadership influence females’ involvements in workstation alongside their potential of facing prejudice (O’Brien et al . 2015). 

Second consideration is the organizational structure. The organizational formal structure is the way a business organizes itself and its constituents of employee pyramids and divisions among others. For instance, established discernment in the official set up of a business is job hierarchies, which is characteristically discriminated by gender (Hoobler et al. 2014). Such gender-prejudiced job pyramids characteristically prevail within diverse divisions of the business. Women that belong to gender-discriminated systems within the establishments have limited access to facts regarding careers, upward mobility and less prominence within the organization . According to O’Brien et al. (2015), the effects of gender-discriminated networks are as a result of women having limited visibility as well as inaccessibility to persons with power. In gender-discriminated systems, it is as well challenging for females to establish feminine mentors since there are no women in positions of high-rank . Eventually, the structure of the organization can be identified by gender disparities that lessen females’ opportunities of realizing high-ranking organizational positions 

Gender disparities can be inherited in the organizational arrangement when there are gender discrimination divisions, networks, and job rankings, which are highly associated with gender prejudice in HR activities (Stamarski and Hing, 2015). For example, in case HR policies are strategized in a way that wages is established by comparing between individuals only within a department then, this eventually leads to departmental devaluation controlled by women. Over-domination by females in specific job results to the lower prominence of the occupations, accordingly, the pay ranges for the occupations lessens over time with the increase of the number of females. Likewise, the networks that are led by women are as well devalued by pay. Gender disparities in the arrangement of business about gender disparity have shared impacts with gender disparities in HR policy as well as policymaking. 

A third contextual influence is a managerial approach and how established discernment in within the approach is linked to disparities in HR activities. The approach is a design, technique or procedure by which business strives to accomplish its purposes, including being lucrative, upholding and intensifying its customer base, publicizing among others. The approach can affect the organizational level of inequality as asserted by Stamarski and Hing (2015). For instance, Hooters, is a chain of restaurant and has promotion approach to appeal to heterosexual men and has resulted in disparities in HR policy, decision making and implementation since merely young and good looking females are regarded as eligible. When Hooters is asked about appearance-based disparity lawsuits on their policy of hiring, they answered by stating that the look necessities are bona fide credentials for the job. Apart from Hooters, there are many other premises that strive to appeal to male customers by necessitating their women attendants to meet their way of dressing including high grooming level such as make-up, revealing uniform and high-heels prerequisite. Therefore, sexist human resources policies alongside activities in which diversity ideals are practised to female and male staffs can come from a particular approach of an organization (Westall, 2015). 

Also included is the institutional gender disparity within a culture of the organization and how it associates to prejudice in HR guidelines. Managerial culture is a jointly held assumptions , beliefs, as well as values by associates of an organization . Cultures emerge from the values of the organizational founders and assumptions regarding the right way of carrying out activities, which are gained from handling challenges throughout the history. The organizational initiators and frontrunners are the highly powerful in establishing, sustaining and transforming the culture throughout the time (Chacko, 2015). The culture of an organization can lead to gender discrimination since culture restricts societies’ concepts of what is conceivable such as their approaches of the act . That is to say when individuals are faced with problems in their place of work, the culture of the organization , who the individuals are, the way individuals act, and the right action will offer simply a specific jurisdiction of social reactions. For example, in the culture of organization manifest by high gender inequality, women are likely to have lower hopes as well as anticipations for promotions, and when prejudiced are less likely to think of appealing their outcome. Further, in cultures of organization characterized by gender disparities, decision makers of the organization must hold a more robust descriptive as well as prescriptive gender stereotypes. They should in their strongest effort believe that women are unable to lead, less committed to their career, and emotionally unstable than men. 

Other features of managerial culture and are less visibly linked to gender is also likely to lead to discernment in human resources activities. For example, a culture of the organization that stresses meritocratic issues may lead managerial associates to disregard human resources attempts to intensify gender parity since when individuals consider that consequences should go only to those who highly deserve, it is easier for the persons to be trapped into the belief that results got to the highly deserving. Thus, individuals will consider that men warrant the high position while women merit the subordinate position at the workplace (O’Brien et al. 2015). The more individuals regard results based on merits, the more they disregard confirmatory action as well as multiplicity attempts for females specifically when they do not identify that judgment is in contrary females in the nonexistence of the guidelines. Therefore, a given culture of an organization has the possibility to affect the extent of disparities against females in human resource while preventing the implementation of HR guidelines that will likely regulate gender disparity. 

Lastly, gender disparities can be observed in managerial climates. A climate of an organization is composed of associates of an organization ’s common viewpoints of a formal and informal practice, processes, and routines of an organization that emerge from direct organizational culture’s experiences (Crossan et al. 2017). The climates of organization tend to be hypothesized and considered as climates for a managerial approach. Gender disparities are highly and clearly shown in two kinds of climate including diversity climate and sexual harassment climate. An optimistic climatic multiplicity prevails when members of an organization observe that different clusters are incorporated, empowered and treated fairly. When staffs view a less reassuring climate of diversity, they view high discernment at the workplace and undergo lower commitment of organization and job satisfaction alongside higher intentions of turnover (Crossan, 2017). Therefore, in an organization with less supportive climate of diversity, women are vulnerable to resign from the organization , thus leading to underrepresentation of females in already male controlled fields. 

A climate of sexual provocation entails views that the business is lenient to sexual provocation. In a climate of organizations which are lenient to sexual harassment, the affected are not ready to present them since they have a belief that their grievances will not be seriously considered and can lead to negative personal repercussions (Hoobler et al. 2014). Moreover, men with the tendency for harassment are at high risk of acting out the behaviours when accommodating factors prevail. Thus, accommodating climate for sexual provocation can lead to annoying behaviours , which can result in profession disengagement and turnover. 

Diversity climate for the organization and sexual provocation are inseparably associated with HR activities. For example, an aspect that results to multiplicity climates viewpoints is whether the section of HR has training on diversity as well as the funds committed to diversity attempts. Likewise, a sexual provocation climate is based on associates of an organization ’s perceptions of the ways policy for sexual harassment at workplace is and how the offenders are likely to be punished. Thus, policies of HR, verdicts and their implementation intensely influence gender disparities in climates of organization and gender disparities across the business (Stamarski and Hing, 2015). In summary, inequalities in gender can prevail within the structures, procedures and practices within an organization . But, organizational leadership, strategy, the structure as well as climate do not essentially necessitate being existed . It is likely for the managerial structures, procedures and activities to enhance gender parity. 

Mitigation of Gender Disparity in HR Guidelines and Related Managerial Arrangements, Procedures and Practices 

Establishments can initiate ways to lessen discernment in HR guidelines. As a first illustration, the paper will provide reflection how an organization can develop the personnel that incorporates programs to recruit, maintain as well as cultivate personnel from groups that are underrepresented. The steps will be within the HR systems, initiatives on diversity focused on transforming the workforce composition (Crossan, 2017). Diversity efforts can function as affirmative programs of action. That is, organizations can track as well as monitor the figure of eligible applicants from diverse groups such as females against males in a group. Also included is the figure of applicants from each category promoted or employed. Actions including focused recruitment initiative (O’Brien et al. 2015), needs to be applied in case the ratio of applicants from a category effectively carefully chosen differs substantially from their ratio in the eligible pool. 

Most important, such initiatives to intensify diversity can be supported by specific human resources guidelines that compensate executives, who identify more varied staffs, with bonuses. Organizations that include criteria for diversity into their performance as well as promotion policies as well as provide meaningful subsidies to executives to establish and grow effective female candidates for advancement are at a high chance of succeeding in maintaining alongside promoting various capacities (Stamarski and Hing, 2015). But, aiming at short-lived and narrowly defined method, including growing the figure of females hired, without aiming at applicants’ performance and offering a sufficient climate or women’s backing are unlikely to bring sustainable diversity change. Thus, the impact can seriously affect the intended beneficiaries. Nonetheless, to be effective, diversity HR policies need to be strengthened by specific structures, procedures and practices of the organization including leadership, climate and strategy. 

For example initiatives of diversity should be associated with approaches to developing a business item for diversity. A business with an approach to publicize to extra varied people can confirm that a more different employee can help the prospective customers better (O’Brien et al. 2015). On the other hand, a business that is striving to start and develop may confirm a commercial approach to intensify multiplicity since the diversity category possesses several viewpoints on an issue with the possibility to provide new and creative solutions. Moreover, leaders of organizations must express strong support for HR policies so that they are effective (Crossan, 2017). Given similar HR policy in an organization , the personal attitude of leaders towards the policy influences the level of discrimination found within their department. Lastly, programs of diversity are likely to be successful in multicultural organizations with a robust diversity of climates. A climate for the diversity of organizations entails employees’ common viewpoints that the structures, procedures and practices of an organization are committed to sustaining diversity as well as eradicating elimination (O’Brien et al. 2015). In establishments where personnel observe a robust climate for multiplicity, diversity outcomes cause greater personnel desirability as well as maintenance among the minorities and women at the organizational entire heights. 

Secondly, HR guidelines can lessen gender disparities. Thus, HR guidelines are discussed as lessening employees’ conflict of work-family experiences. Conflict of work-family is a form of the role that employees undergo when for example, time, cognitive or emotional demands of their work obligations affect their family duties demands and vice versa. Conflict of work-family is associated with the adverse outcome of aggregating workers stress, illness-associated absenteeism, and the need to turnover. Notably, women are more acutely influenced by a conflict of work-family compared to men. Conflict of work-family can be increased by HR guidelines that assess workers by appearance time such as total hours an employee is available in the workplace as a representation of commitment to the organization as stated by Crossan (2017). 

Formal and responsive HR guidelines can be implemented to let go conflict of work-family openly, which differentially helps females in the office (O’Brien et al. 2015). For example, to lessen conflict of work-family, organizations can adapt HR policies that include: flexible work organizations with flexible schedules, a work week that is compressed, telecommuting, and part-time work and job-shares. Together with other friendly policies on the family including childcare provision, elderly care alongside maternity leave, organizations are likely to work to lessen and strengthen the retention of working women. 

Regrettably, it has been established that the implementation of work policies that are flexible are likely to still result in prejudice. Policymakers on organizational sexism can result to finance more work schedules that are flexible to white males compared to females as well as other minorities since white males are viewed as more dear (Hoobler et al . 2014). To avoid the practice , organizations are required to reinforce HR guidelines, associated with flexible work schedules. For example, formal and written policies must highlight who can implement flexible work schedules such as employees in particular divisions or with particular job duties. Also, what the proposed schedule look like such as major work from 9 am to 2 pm with flexible hours of work from 8 am to 11 am . When the particulars of the guidelines are legitimately stipulated, policymakers of the organization have less latitude. Thus, their opportunity to discriminate in allowing access to the schedules is limited. 

To be effective, HR policies that are friendly to the family should be embedded in other structures, procedures and practices of the organization including organizational approach, culture, climate and leadership. A commercial situation for flexible work schedules can be established since they appeal to as well as maintain top talent including females. In addition , leaders of the organization must express robust support for programs that are family friendly. Leaders can assist strengthen the approval of policies that are family friendly through sequential interactions, visibility, communications as well as role modelling with employees (Stamarski and Hing, 2015). HR polices that are friendly to should as well be strengthened by instantaneously changing the causal culture of an organization that values appearance time. Even though it is hard to transform the organizational culture, the organizational frontrunners play a powerful role in imparting the change since the leaders’ conducts are precursors as well as initiates culture of organizations . In general, HR guidelines should be strengthened by specific structures, procedures and practices of organizations so that the policies can be successful. 


Implementing HR diversity advantage policies and polices that are friendly to the family is likely to mitigate gender disparity as well as reshape the structure, procedures and practices of an organization increase gender equality(O’Brien et al. 2015). Particularly, the policies, in the case become effective, should increase women’s number at the entire organizational levels. Moreover, having additional females in leadership ranks indicates to associates of an organization that the business is committed to multiplicity, influencing the organizational multiplicity climate and the organizational culture (Hoobler et al. 2014). Thus, specific HR policies are likely to lessen gender disparities in all of the alternative structures, procedures and practices of the organization . 


Chacko, S. (2015).Examining the role of HRM system strength in the relationship between HRM practices and employee work engagement, attitudes and behaviours.  Daktarodisertacija, nepublikuotasrankraštis.Royal Holloway, University of London

Crossan, M. M., Byrne, A., Seijts, G. H., Reno, M., Monzani, L., &Gandz, J. (2017).Toward a Framework of Leader Character in Organizations.  Journal of Management Studies

Farndale, E., & Sanders, K. (2017).Conceptualizing HRM system strength through a cross-cultural lens.  The International Journal of Human Resource Management 28 (1), 132-148. 

Gentry, W. A., Eckert, R. H., Munusamy, V. P., Stawiski, S. A., & Martin, J. L. (2014). The needs of participants in leadership development programs: A qualitative and quantitative cross-country investigation.  Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 21 (1), 83-101. 

Hoobler, J. M., Lemmon, G., & Wayne, S. J. (2014).Women’s managerial aspirations an organizational development perspective.  Journal of Management , 40 (3), 703-730. 

O’Brien, K. R., Scheffer, M., van Nes, E. H., & van der Lee, R. (2015). How to break the cycle of low workforce diversity: A model for change.  PloS one,   10 (7), e0133208. 

Stamarski, C. S., &Hing, L. S. S. (2015). Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism.  Frontiers in psychology , 6

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