ADHD refers to one of the common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. The diagnosis often occurs during childhood and may continue into adulthood. Children who have ADHD may be overly active, face difficulty in paying attention and controlling their impulsive behavior regardless of the results. Usually, children may have challenges concentrating at some moments in their lives. However, children who have been diagnosed with ADHD do not outgrow the poor attention span ( Polanczyk et al., 2007) . The symptoms may increase and affect their relationships with friends, at school, or at home. Children diagnosed with ADHD have challenges interacting with other people, daydream a lot, do not like taking turns, lose or forget things a lot, and face difficulty resisting temptations ( Kessler et al., 2016) . They often make unnecessary risks, squirm or fidget, make careless mistakes, and talk too much. The research paper will seek to analyze ADHD, the types of ADHD, causes, diagnosis and treatment of the condition.
Causes of ADHD
It is critical to note that ADHD is not caused by excess sugar, poor parenting, food allergies, falls or head injuries, food additives, traumatic life events, inadequate physical activity, digital distractions, television, and video games. Initially, most researchers believed that the condition was related to minor head injuries or head damage. However, most of the children who had been diagnosed with the condition did not have such a history, and the theory was proved wrong. Other people believed that food additives and refined sugar increased the symptoms of ADHD ( Klingberg et al., 2015) . ADHD is caused by connectivity, chemical, and structural differences that occur in the brain mainly because of genetics. People with ADHD face an abnormality in the manner that neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine work together to enhance communication between activation of brain functions and neurons. Also, disruptions in the serotonin activity and levels may affect the regulation and modulation of the dopamine system.
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The brain’s activity and structural differences may also cause ADHD. The research that has been taking place indicates that there is a difference in brain volume, metabolism, and development of certain brain structures of people with ADHD such as corpus callosum, prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, and substantia nigra. PET scans were conducted on a sample of adults who are non-ADHD ad compared with those with ADHD. ADHD can also be caused by brain communication differences ( Gaub & Carlson, 2016) . The brain that has ADHD communicates differently with the brain that does not have ADHD. Research is still ongoing to validate the theory of the “default mode network” (DMN). The ongoing studies suggest that if the DMN is defunct, it may affect the communication between various parts of the ADHD brain. Furthermore, genetic problems have also been linked to ADHD. Various genes such as dopamine and genes that affect serotonin activity play a role in the condition. It is evident that ADHD is common in some families due to genetics.
Types of the ADHD Condition
There are three main types of ADHD based on the type of symptoms that are predominant in an individual. The first is called the predominantly inattentive presentation. It is difficult to follow conversations or instructions, finish or organize a task, and paying attention to various details. The second type is called predominantly hyperactive-impulsive presentation. The individual talks and fidgets a lot. They find it challenging to sit still for a long time ( Pappas, 2016) . The children often climb, run, and jump constantly. The people have trouble with impulsivity, and they feel restless. They often interrupt others and may have more injuries and accidents in comparison to others. The third type is the combined presentation where the two types that were described earlier are equally present in the individual.
Diagnosis of ADHD
The diagnosis of ADHD is complex, and it is crucial to work with an ADHD professional when seeking a diagnosis. It can be diagnosed through obtaining a comprehensive history, interview procedures, third party observations, symptom rating skills, and behavior. Psycho-educational and neuropsychological testing may have various advantages, but it may not be needed during diagnosis. Neuropsychological testing assists an individual in understanding the internal and external of the unique brain profile ( Gaub & Carlson, 2016) . The testing can be quite important in learning to leave a healthy life after being diagnosed with ADHD. Psycho-educational and neuropsychological testing is critical in the process of achieving workplace, academic, and standardized accommodations and testing. Because ADHD is a condition that is present in the lifespan of an individual, their teachers, family members, and spouses are usually asked to offer third party complete behavior rating and observations to prove the course of the patients’ symptoms.
The individuals should seek out a psychotherapist, psychiatrist, or psychologist who have specialized in ADHD and other related challenges if the individual finds it necessary to be evaluated for ADHD. Despite the fact that a primary care physician can generally identify symptoms of ADHD and give a comprehensive diagnosis, they may lack the extensive and adequate ADHD experience that is required to correctly diagnose and treat the ADHD condition ( Klingberg et al., 2015) . Usually, the primary care physician may refer the individual to a psychologist or psychiatrist who have specialized in mental health in such situations similar to the way a person with has a heart problem will be referred to a cardiologist.
Treatment of ADHD
Research suggests that the most effective treatment for the condition is a combination of therapy and medication. Therapy addresses the coping strategies, daily thoughts, and behaviors. On the other hand, medication aims to manage brain-based symptoms and functions. Mindfulness-based therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Acceptance, and Commitment Therapy have been found to be the most efficient. The effectiveness is attributed to modalities that focus on working towards change and identifying barriers at the current moment. It is critical for individuals to find a clinician who has specialized in ADHD so that minor challenges such as complying with therapy goals, being late for their sessions, and interrupting the therapist will not diagnose with deep psychological neurosis but as a brain-based condition ( Kessler et al., 2016) . The therapist who is ADHD friendly will view the challenges as opportunities to attain self-awareness and build new skills. Other than building coping strategies and new skills, it is beneficial to process the interpersonal and emotional impact of ADHD. They often feel overwhelmed, shame, chronic stress, guilt, and failure. Understanding the emotional effects is quite beneficial to group therapy, individuals, and couples.
Coaching ADHD specialist has been one of the most efficient in assisting individuals with ADHD to identify and meet goals, provide a source of accountability, maintain a positive path to change, and improve their productivity. Most people who have ADHD seek out coaching when their objectives and goals so that they can improve their productivity and organizational skills. The medication is used to normalize the brain activities and should be correctly prescribed and monitored by the ADHD clinician, psychiatrist, or physician but not the primary care physician ( Kessler et al., 2016) . Most people with ADHD are often treated with stimulant medications. Furthermore, the condition is regarded as a disability according to the Americans with Disabilities Act. Some people with ADHD may need accommodations in the workplace or school that supports their condition. The occurrence of ADHD in the country has been increasing, and the need for academic accommodations will become more common.
The research paper has analyzed ADHD, the types of ADHD, causes, diagnosis and treatment of the condition. ADHD is caused by connectivity, chemical, and structural differences that occur in the brain mainly because of genetics. The research that has been taking place indicates that there is a difference in brain volume, metabolism, and development of certain brain structures of people with ADHD such as corpus callosum, prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, and substantia nigra. The research will be quite important in assisting people with ADHD and creating accommodation in all social places. It will also assist other people to understand the condition ( Gaub & Carlson, 2016) . They often feel overwhelmed, shame, chronic stress, guilt, and failure. The condition can be diagnosed through obtaining a comprehensive history, interview procedures, third party observations, symptom rating skills, and behavior. Because of the increasing prevalence of the condition in the country, the research will be of great importance in assessing and controlling the condition.
Gaub, M., & Carlson, C. L. (2016). Gender differences in ADHD: a meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry , 36 (8), 1036-1045.
Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., & Spencer, T. (2016). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. American Journal of psychiatry , 163 (4), 716-723.
Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P. J., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., Dahlström, K., & Westerberg, H. (2015). Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD-a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry , 44 (2), 177-186.
Pappas, D. (2016). ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, norms, and clinical interpretation. Journal of psychoeducational assessment , 24 (2), 172-178.
Polanczyk, G., de Lima, M. S., Horta, B. L., Biederman, J., & Rohde, L. A. (2007). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. American journal of psychiatry , 164 (6), 942-948.