Animal testing has been the norm for years often done to protect humans from the harmful effects of experimentation. As such, animal testing or experimentation can be described as any form of scientific experimentation in which a living animal such as a rat is forced to undergo painful procedures that could be harmful and long-lasting. In this accord, this paper is aimed at discussing two papers regarding alternatives to animal experimentation and draw correlations from them.
The two articles chosen are ‘Alternatives to animal testing’ by Henkel and ‘Alternatives to animal testing: A review’ by Doke & Dhawale. Comparison between the two papers reveals that there are several correlations with respect to animal testing and their alternatives. Both articles concur that the number of animals used in experimentation is large and that it should be reduced (Doke & Dhawale, 2015). In relation to the course materials, both papers recommend the use of the three Rs (Reduction, Refinement, and Replacement). Replacement involves coming up with alternative methods of replacing animal experimentation. Reduction means minimizing the number of animals used in testing. Finally, both authors refer to refinement as the optimization of experiments so that animal subjects are exposed to less stress until they can be replaced. In both articles, the authors agree on the fact that alternative methods such as in vitro cell and tissue cultures which can be successfully grown in a lab outside the animal or human body are a way for the future (Henkel, 2014).
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In more ways than one, the course material has elaborated that toxic substances can be particularly dangerous and chronic if not properly handled. These substances can be harmful both within and outside the body like on the skin. Some substances in the gaseous state are detrimental to the respiratory organs and ultimately in all scenarios of exposure since they could lead to death. Essentially, these substances are deadly because some attack the nervous system, the muscles causing paralysis, some cause asphyxiation, and some cause cardiovascular dysfunction. However, some are mild but can still cause infections and poisoning.
Based on the ethics and increased use of animals in experiments, it is crucial for alternative methods to be developed and implemented. Also, toxic substances should always be handled with proper gear like masks, gloves, and protective clothes. Immediate help should be sought in the case of exposure to these substances.
Doke, S.K., & Dhawale, S.C. (2015). Alternatives to Animal Testing: A Review. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal , Volume 23, Issue 3. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319016413001096
Henkel. (2014). Alternatives to Animal Testing. Henkel AG & Company . Web. Retrieved from: http://www.henkel.com/blob/29448/ba7a7393d7789e13547c0298e1608bc4/data/2014-alternatives-to-animal-testing.pdf